The Science behind Indian (Hindu) Calendars

The Science behind Indian (Hindu) Calendars (R.K. Chopra, B.Tech. Mining Engg.)   With evolution of human specie there was a need to keep track of time and to forecast certain cyclic events upon which human survival depended. The change of seasons, onset of winter & melting of snow, onset of monsoon (rain) & occurrence of flood, migration of animals & fish, and cycle of crops, plants & trees, all were governed by a time cycle, which even the animals felt and were aware of; but humans in different parts of the world devised precise systems for calculating and predicting this time cycle which later evolved as different types of calendars. Humans took help of celestial bodies, apparent motions of the sun & the moon to formulate different calendars. Counting of days based upon the phases of the moon began in Palaeolithic Era (Stone Age, 2.5 millions year ago to 10000 BC) and thus the concept of a lunar month developed. The concept of seasons also existed right from the beginning. However, with the development of civilisations and advent of script & counting system, man could know the number of days it took for recurrence of a season and that it happened due to motion of the sun (or the earth as we know now); and concept of the solar year developed. It did not take any more time to configure that roughly 12 lunar months make a solar year. In colder countries where onset of winter & melting of snow was the single most important Read More…