The History, Science and Mathematics of Indian (Hindu हिंदू) and Other Calendars

History of Calendars

The History, Science and Mathematics of Indian (Hindu हिंदूand Other Calendars

A book by Rajesh Kumar Chopra




Multiple calendar systems are being followed in this large country, India, with diverse cultures; and though each of them is individually accurate based on its adopted principles, the difference is not easily understood due to mingling of them over many centuries. Another highlight of the confusion is the names of the months being same in most of the Hindu calendars.

A festival falling on different dates in different years is a common feature of all religions. For Hindus, the Hōlī Festival may occur on any day from March 1 to March 29; for Muslims the Īd may happen on any day of the year; whereas for Christians, the Easter Sunday may occur from March 22 to April 25 or as celebrated by some orthodox churches from April 3 to May 10. This does not happen arbitrarily, but there is Simple Science and Mathematics behind this.

Before going through the chapters, one must understand that the simplicity is not the Nature’s nature. Though the Nature follows its set of rules, it does not like round numbers, as it has an affinity to fractions and variations. Take the example of the ratio between the circumference of a circle to its diameter. It is denoted by a Greek Letter Pi (π) which is an irrational number, i.e. its value cannot be expressed exactly as a fraction or decimals. Though you can do some approximations, like 22/7 or 355/113, or say, represent it till 10 digits as 3.14159265359. People have calculated its value even till the 2,000,000,000,000,000th digit.

It would have been wonderful if we had exactly 4 weeks in a month. Counting of weeks would have been so much easier. Or each month could have been only of 30 days, a year of 360 days, and of course, no leap year. A lot better would have been a year of 100 days and 10 month in a year. But it is not. And therefore, I am writing this book with the objective of making the subject easy to understand. You may use your discretion in case of any difference of opinion or if you find any inconsistency which could have crept in inadvertently while collecting facts and figures from different sources. I have also used हिंदीHindī spellings (देवनागरी Devanāgarī script) for some words for Indian readers.

I also acknowledge the other scholars, whose views and citations have been indirectly reflected in this book. Brought to my knowledge I shall be happy to include their reference.

The objective of writing this book is to make people understand the calendar rather than to Re-Search.

I would highly appreciate all the suggestions and comments for any improvement.





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The Science behind Indian (Hindu) Calendars


Secular Greeting JAI SHRI RAM

Once I went to a party and greeted my friends with ‘Jai Sri Ram’. One of my friends commented that I should use Secular Greetings.

I put up my argument that when some body sneezes, English people say God Bless You. Muslims frequently use the word Insha Allah and so on. So why some body frowns when we say Jai Shri Ram. It is only natural for any one to remember his God in his own language. This is a natural behaviour accepted by all great persons. Being originally from Varanasi I am quoting a verse from a Great Poet from Varanasi Shri Shyam Narayan Pandey.

Haldighati Eleventh chapter

हल्दीघाटी: एकादश सर्ग – श्याम नारायण पाण्डेय

राणा प्रताप का ताप तचा,

अरि–दल में हाहाकर मचा।

भेड़ों की तरह भगे कहते

अल्लाह हमारी जान बचा ॥४३॥

You can see that in the above verse Akbar’s Soldiers remember the God in their language. It would have been inappropriate if the poet had not used the name of the God as spoken by their followers and had used the word Shri Ram instead of Allah in the above verse.

It is very natural for all the persons to always remember the God in Good Times and Bad times. With all the respect for our Father of the Nation the last word of Mahatma Gandhi ji was Hey Ram !  I don’t think there is ever a person more secular than him.

Shringi Rishi of Ramayana era – Singrauli – Mada rock cut caves

Shringi Rishi of Ramayana era – Singrauli – Mada rock cut caves

Mada Caves

माँड़ा गुफा, सिंगरौली

Singrauli is a lesser known district of Madhya Pradesh.

Very few people are aware that Singrauli is the Energy (ऊर्जा) Capital of India having one of the highest concentrations of super thermal power projects and Mega Coal Mines in India. Scenic beauty, forests, waterfalls, rivers amidst valleys and hills of Vindhyachal, Son (Sone, सोन) River and Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar (Rihand Dam)


The District name of Singrauli comes from Srigavali after Sringi Rishi who did Yajya For Maharaja Dasharath after which Lord Raam was born, as beautifully described by Goswami Tulsidas:


श्री राम चरित मानस गोस्वामी तुलसी दास

बाल काण्ड

shrI rAmacharita mAnasa


एक बार भूपति मन माहीं। भै गलानि मोरें सुत नाहीं॥
गुर गृह गयउ तुरत महिपाला। चरन लागि करि बिनय बिसाला॥1॥


eka bAra bhUpati mana mAhI.n. bhai galAni more.n suta nAhI.n ..

gura gR^iha gaya_u turata mahipAlA. charana lAgi kari binaya bisAlA ..


निज दुख सुख सब गुरहि सुनायउ। कहि बसिष्ठ बहुबिधि समुझायउ॥
धरहु धीर होइहहिं सुत चारी। त्रिभुवन बिदित भगत भय हारी॥2॥


nija dukha sukha saba gurahi sunAya_u. kahi basiShTha bahubidhi samujhAya_u ..

dharahu dhIra ho_ihahi.n suta chArI. tribhuvana bidita bhagata bhaya hArI ..


सृंगी रिषिहि बसिष्ठ बोलावा। पुत्रकाम सुभ जग्य करावा॥
भगति सहित मुनि आहुति दीन्हें। प्रगटे अगिनि चरू कर लीन्हें॥3॥


sR^i.ngI riShahi basiShTha bolAvA. putrakAma subha jagya karAvA ..

bhagati sahita muni Ahuti dInhe.n. pragaTe agini charU kara lInhe.n ..


जो बसिष्ठ कछु हृदयँ बिचारा। सकल काजु भा सिद्ध तुम्हारा॥
यह हबि बाँटि देहु नृप जाई। जथा जोग जेहि भाग बनाई॥4॥


jo basiShTha kachhu hR^idaya.N bichArA. sakala kAju bhA siddha tumhArA ..

yaha habi bA.NTi dehu nR^ipa jA_I. jathA joga jehi bhAga banA_I ..


तब अदृस्य भए पावक सकल सभहि समुझाइ।
परमानंद मगन नृप हरष न हृदयँ समाइ॥189॥



taba adR^isya bha_e pAvaka sakala sabhahi samujhA_i ..

paramAna.nda magana nR^ipa haraSha na hR^idaya.N samA_i .. 189 ..


तबहिं रायँ प्रिय नारि बोलाईं। कौसल्यादि तहाँ चलि आईं॥
अर्ध भाग कौसल्यहि दीन्हा। उभय भाग आधे कर कीन्हा॥1॥


tabahi.n rAya.N priya nAri bolA_I.n. kausalyAdi tahA.N chali A_I ..

ardha bhAga kausalyAhi dInhA. ubhaya bhAga Adhe kara kInhA ..


कैकेई कहँ नृप सो दयऊ। रह्यो सो उभय भाग पुनि भयऊ॥
कौसल्या कैकेई हाथ धरि। दीन्ह सुमित्रहि मन प्रसन्न करि॥2॥


kaike_I kaha.N nR^ipa so daya_U. rahyo so ubhaya bhAga puni bhaya_U ..

kausalyA kaike_I hAtha dhari. dInha sumitrahi mana prasanna kari ..


एहि बिधि गर्भसहित सब नारी। भईं हृदयँ हरषित सुख भारी॥
जा दिन तें हरि गर्भहिं आए। सकल लोक सुख संपति छाए॥3॥


ehi bidhi garbhasahita saba nArI. bha_I.n hR^idaya.N haraShita sukha bhArI ..

jA dina te.n hari garbhahi.n A_e. sakala loka sukha sa.npati chhA_e ..


Mada (माँड़ा) rock cut caves of Singrauli

At some distance on southwest of Singrauli there are a series of 7th and 8th century caves. Some of which have beautiful rock cut caves, houses many statues, one of them is of Natraja . As saying goes, PANDAVAS also stayed there for some time during their AgyatVas. Area has gripping scenic beauty, but the upkeep of caves was not up to the mark when I took these photographs in 2010 0r 2011. There are some shoddy repair works. What authorities could do is even to put some ticket for entrance and upgrade the upkeep.

Nataraja mada caves


River at Mada Caves


mada rock cut caves 2

My Father’s Memory of Gauraksha Andolan 1966

“My Father’s Memory of Gauraksha Andolan 1966”
– by R. K. Chopra

My Father Shri Dev Kumar Chopra is now in his eighties. He gets very agitated when he comes across any news of trafficking of cows for slaughter across state or country’s borders. We come from a Hindu Khatri Family from Varanasi. My Father’s Guru, and my Guru, was Shri Harihara Nand Sarswati popularly known as Swami Karpatri Ji Maharaj. Many of his books were published from my house at Sati Chabutara, Varanasi where ‘Sanmarg Karyalaya’ (Sanmarg Magzine) was located. Even the first publication of Goswami Tulsidas: Ram Charit Manas was published from my house, much before; it was published by Gita Press.

Our family owned a Movie hall, then known as Nishat Talkies at Godowlia*. Post Independence my Father became an active member of Ram Rajya Parishad a political party who mostly allied with Hindu Maha Sabha. I am narrating his memories of that day of Goraksha Andolan, the 7th November 1966 which he has been telling us since our childhood.
“We were advancing towards Sansad Bhawan, making slogan Gaumata ki Jai. Then there was this firing. People started running. I saw a Sadhu in saffron dress lying in pool of blood. Nobody dared to help him. A person, later I came to know he was a watchman from some building, urged everyone to help the Sadhu. Nobody else dared. I said let us go. We two advanced. A security person pointed gun at us. After a few moments, suddenly, he lowered his gun. Probably realising our good intention, Security person moved away a few feet. We reached the Sadhu .He was in great pain, hit by a bullet in thigh. We lifted him. Sadhu was bulky. I too had great body but we two had great difficulty in carrying him for some 40-50 feet, after which the crowd came for help. I do not know whether that Sadhu survived or what happened to him. The media was not so vocal or unbiased then; so such event never made a headline or I would rather say even a line. I salute such soldiers who fought or still fighting for Our Gaumata.

Gau Mata Ki Jai
Bharat Mata Ki Jai

*Very few people know that down town Varanasi- Godowlia is named after Gau Dhuli, i.e. the Dust atmosphere generated during evening when cowherds used to return back after grazing. Why the morning period is not called Gau Dhuli when the cows go out has logic. You know that in morning, the village or forest atmosphere remains slightly moist and the dust generation is low. But in evening, ground gets baked dry by Sun and with tens of thousands cows returning it becomes Gau Dhuli.


Samadhi (the state of Super-consciousness)

Literary meaning of Sanskrit word samādhi in the reference of Ashtanga yoga is to be in enlightened stage of unity with the Supreme Spirit’; (Samadhi is ultimate objective of Yoga thus 8th and last stage of Aṣṭāṅga Yoga).


भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां तयापहृतचेतसाम् |
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धि: समाधौ न विधीयते ||

bhogaiśwvarya-prasaktānāṁ tayāpahṛita-chetasām
vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate

Bhagvad Gita 2.44

Those who are much attached to worldly pleasure and sense enjoyments, whose minds are drawn away by such teaching, they are unable to possess the resolute determination or spiritual intelligence to concentrate on Supreme Lord.


श्रुताप्सरोगीतिरपि क्षणेऽस्मिन्हरः प्रसंख्यानपरो बभूव ।
आत्मेश्वराणां नहि जातु विध्नाः समाधिभेदप्रभवो भवन्ति ।। ३.४० ।।


Hara (Shiva), though hearing the music of the heavenly damsels at such a time, remained absorbed in meditation; for never can obstacles break Samadhi(disturb the contemplation) of those who have complete control over themselves.

Kumārasambhava 3.40


First Chaptar of Patanjali Yoga Sutra is attributed to Smadhi. The chapter is called Samadhi Pada and has 51 Verse.


अथ योगानुशासनम् ॥१॥

atha yogānuśāsanam ॥1॥

योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः ॥२॥

yogacittavtti nirodha॥2॥

तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् ॥३॥

tadā draṣṭusvarūpe avasthānam ॥3॥

वृत्ति सारूप्यमितरत्र ॥४॥

vtti sārūpyam itaratra ॥4॥

वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टाक्लिष्टाः ॥५॥

vttayapañcatayyakliṣṭā akliṣṭā॥5॥

प्रमाण विपर्यय विकल्प निद्रा स्मृतयः॥६॥

pramāa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smtaya॥6॥

प्रत्यक्षानुमानागमाः प्रमाणानि॥७॥

pratyaka anumāna āgamāpramāāni ॥7॥

विपर्ययो मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूप प्रतिष्ठम्॥८॥

viparyayaḥ mithyājñānam atadrūpa pratiṣṭham ॥8॥

शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो विकल्पः॥९॥

śabdajñāna anupātī vastuśūnyavikalpa॥9॥

अभावप्रत्ययालम्बना तमोवृत्तिर्निद्र॥१०॥

abhāva pratyaya ālambanā vttinidrā ॥10॥


अनुभूतविषयासंप्रमोषः स्मृतिः ॥११॥


anubhūta viaya asapramoasmti॥11॥

अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः ॥१२॥

abhyāsa vairāgyābhyātannirodha॥12॥


तत्र स्थितौ यत्नोऽभ्यासः ॥१३॥

tatra sthitau yatnaabhyāsa॥13॥


स तु दीर्घकाल नैरन्तर्य सत्कारादरासेवितो दृढभूमिः ॥१४॥

sa tu dīrghakāla nairantarya satkāra āsevitadṛḍhabhūmi॥14॥


दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसंज्णा वैराग्यम् ॥१५॥

dṛṣṭa ānuśravika viaya vitṛṣṇasya

vaśīkārasajñā vairāgyam ॥15॥


तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेः गुणवैतृष्ण्यम् ॥१६॥

tatparapuruakhyāteguavaitṛṣṇyam ॥16॥

वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारुपानुगमात्संप्रज्ञातः ॥१७॥

vitarka vicāra ānanda asmitārūpa anugamāt saprajñāta॥17॥


विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः ॥१८॥

virāmapratyaya abhyāsapūrvasaskāraśeaanya॥18॥

भवप्रत्ययो विदेहप्रकृतिलयानम् ॥१९॥

bhavapratyayavideha praktilayānām ॥19॥


श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृति समाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम् ॥२०॥

śraddhā vīrya smti samādhiprajñā pūrvakaitareām ॥20॥


तीव्रसंवेगानामासन्नः ॥२१॥

tīvrasavegānām āsanna॥21॥

मृदुमध्याधिमात्रत्वात्ततोऽपि विशेषः ॥२२॥

mdu madhya adhimātratvāt tataapi viśea॥22॥

ईश्वरप्रणिधानाद्वा ॥२३॥

Īśvara praidhānāt vā ॥23॥

क्लेश कर्म विपाकाशयैःपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः ॥२४॥

kleśa karma vipāka āśayaiaparāmṛṣṭapuruaviśeaĪśvara॥24॥


तत्र निरतिशयं सर्वज्ञबीजम् ॥२५॥

tatra niratiśayasarvajñabījam ॥25॥


स एष पूर्वेषामपिगुरुः कालेनानवच्छेदात् ॥२६॥

sa eapūrveām api gurukālena anavacchedāt ॥26॥


तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः ॥२७॥

tasya vācakapraava॥27॥


तज्जपः तदर्थभावनम् ॥२८॥

tajjapatadarthabhāvanam ॥28॥


ततः प्रत्यक्चेतनाधिगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभवश्च ॥२९॥

tatapratyakcetana adhigamaapi antarāya abhāvaca ॥29॥


व्याधि स्त्यान संशय प्रमादालस्याविरति भ्रान्तिदर्शनालब्धभूमिकत्वानवस्थितत्वानि चित्तविक्षेपाः ते अन्तरायाः ॥३०॥

vyādhi styāna saśaya pramāda ālasya avirati bhrāntidarśana alabdhabhūmikatva anavasthitatvāni cittavikepate antarāyā॥30॥

दुःखदौर्मनस्याङ्गमेजयत्वश्वासप्रश्वासाः विक्षेप सहभुवः ॥३१॥

dukha daurmanasya agamejayatva

śvāsapraśvāsāvikepa sahabhuva॥31॥

तत्प्रतिषेधार्थमेकतत्त्वाभ्यासः ॥३२॥

tatpratiedhārtham ekatattva abhyāsa॥32॥

मैत्री करुणा मुदितोपेक्षाणांसुखदुःख पुण्यापुण्यविषयाणां भावनातः चित्तप्रसादनम् ॥३३॥

maitrī karuā muditā upekaam

sukha dukha puya apuya

viayāābhāvanātacittaprasādanam ॥33॥


प्रच्छर्दनविधारणाभ्यां वा प्राणस्य ॥३४॥

pracchardana vidhāraābhyāvā prāasya ॥34॥


विषयवती वा प्रवृत्तिरुत्पन्ना मनसः स्थिति निबन्धिनी ॥३५॥

viayavatī vā pravttiutpannā manasasthiti nibandhanī ॥35॥

विशोका वा ज्योतिष्मती ॥३६॥

viśokāh vā jyotimatī ॥36॥


वीतराग विषयम् वा चित्तम् ॥३७॥

vītarāga viayavā cittam ॥37॥

स्वप्ननिद्रा ज्ञानालम्बनम् वा ॥३८॥

svapna nidrā jñāna ālambana॥38॥


यथाभिमतध्यानाद्वा ॥३९॥

yathābhimata dhyānāt vā ॥39॥

परमाणु परममहत्त्वान्तोऽस्य वशीकारः ॥४०॥

paramāu paramamahattvāntaasya vaśīkāra॥40॥

क्षीणवृत्तेरभिजातस्येव मणेर्ग्रहीतृग्रहणग्राह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तिः ॥४१॥

kīavtteabhijātasya iva maegrahīt

grahaa grāhyeu tatstha tadañjanatā samāpatti॥41॥

तत्र शब्दार्थज्ञानविकल्पैः संकीर्णा सवितर्का समापत्तिः ॥४२॥

tatra śabda artha jñāna vikalpai

sakīrā savitarkā samāpatti॥42॥

स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का ॥४३॥

smtipariśuddhau svarūpaśūnya iva

arthamātranirbhāsā nirvitarka ॥43॥

एतयैव सविचारा निर्विचारा च सूक्ष्मविषय व्याख्याता ॥४४॥

etayaiva savicāra nirvicāra ca sūkmaviayā vyākhyātā ॥44॥

सूक्ष्मविषयत्वम्चालिण्ग पर्यवसानम् ॥४५॥

sūkmaviayatvaca aliga paryavasānam ॥45॥

ता एव सबीजस्समाधिः ॥४६॥

tā eva sabījasamādhi॥46॥

निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः ॥४७॥

nirvicāra vaiśāradye adhyātmaprasāda॥47॥

ऋतंभरा तत्र प्रज्ञा ॥४८॥

tabharā tatra prajñā ॥48॥

श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाभ्यामन्यविषया विशेषार्थत्वात् ॥४९॥

śruta anumāna prajñābhyām anyaviayā viśeārthatvāt ॥49॥


तज्जस्संस्कारोऽन्यसंस्कार प्रतिबन्धी ॥५०॥

tajjasaskāraanyasaskāra pratibandhī ॥50॥


तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजः समाधिः ॥५१॥

tasyāpi nirodhe sarvanirodhāt nirbījasamādhi॥51॥

Dhyana Yoga ध्यान योग Meditation

 Dhyana Yoga ध्यान योग (Meditation)

dhyAnam ध्यानम्

In day today language Dhyana word of Sanskrit is translated to its limited meaning “Mediation”. I try to explain here few references in our ancient literature about Dhyana.


A reference of Dyana in  Abhigyan Shakuntalam  makes it clear that by practicing Dhyana one could know even those events with reasoning of which he was not having information otherwise. In other words to come across with the object (situation etc.) of meditation.


yadaivApsarastIrthAvataraNAtpratyaxavaiklavyAM shaku.ntalAmAdAya menakA dAxAyaNImupagatA tadaiva dhyAnAdavagato.asmi durvAsasaH shApAdiyaM tapasvinI sahadharmachAriNItvayA pratyAdiShTA nAnyatheti | sa chAyama~NgulIyakadarshanAvasAnaH |

abhij~nAnashAku.ntalam .. 7.31.3..


यदा एवाप्सरस्तीर्थावतरणात्प्रत्यक्षवैक्लव्यां शकुन्तलां आदाय मेनका दाक्षायणीं उपगता तदा एव ध्यानादवगतोऽस्मि दुर्वाससः शापादियं तपस्विनी सहधर्मचारिणीत्वया प्रत्यादिष्टा नान्यथेति । स चायं अङ्गुलीयकदर्शनावसानः ।

अभिज्ञान शाकुन्तलम् ।। ७.३१.३  ।।


Sage Maharshi Kashyap says to King Dushyant:

When you (king Dushyant) desolated your wife Shakuntala at a pilgrim place called Apsara tirtha after the incident her mother Apsara Menka took her to my wife Aditi. At that point of time I came to know by dhyana that all this was effect of Maharshi Durvasa Curse which had validity till sight of the signet ring given by you to Shakuntala.



In Maharishi Patanjali Yogasutra verses referring to Dhyana Yoga.

This verse about Dyana in First Chapter Samadhi Pada

यथाभिमतध्यानाद्वा ॥ 1.39॥

yathAbhimatadhyAnAdvA  ..Verse 39..

               .. samAdhi\-pAdaH ..



Meaning: Meditate about what is appropriate.

In Sadhan Pad the second Chapter of Yog Sutra

ध्यानहेयास्तद्वृत्तयः ॥ 11॥

॥ साधन-पादः ॥

dhyAnaheyAstadvR^ittayaH  ..11..

                .. sAdhana\-pAdaH ..


Meaning: By practicing dhyana dispose  disturbance of life. Here Vritti (whirlpool) word is  used as metaphor to describe disturbances.


In third chapter Vibhutipad

तत्र प्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम् ॥2॥

॥ विभूतिपाद ॥


tatra pratyayaikatAnatA dhyAnam.h .. 2..

.. vibhUti\-pAdaH ..


Meaning:  To remain (continuous) in a mental state to have a psyche oneness with the content of meditation.


In Forth Chapter Kaivalya Pad

तत्र ध्यानजमनाशयम् ॥6॥


tatra dhyAnajamanAshayam.h  .. 6 ..

.. kaivalya\-pAdaH ..


Meaning : In the condition when thought are pure and original attains freedom from desires

Pratyāhāraḥ (प्रत्याहार) withdraw from desires

स्वविषयासंप्रयोगे चित्तस्य स्वरूपानुकार इवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः॥५४॥

ततः परमा वश्यतेन्द्रियाणाम्॥५५॥

पतञ्जलि योग सूत्र साधनपाद

स्व-विषय के साथ सम्प्रयोगाभाव (संयोग-अभाव) इन्द्रियों का जो चित्त स्वरुपानुकार होता है  वही प्रत्याहार है इसी से इन्द्रियाँ परम (पूर्णतः) वश में होतीं  हैं

svaviṣaya-asaṁprayoge cittasya svarūpānukāra-iv-endriyāṇāṁ pratyāhāraḥ ||54||

 tataḥ paramā-vaśyatā indriyāṇām ||55||

Patañjali Yoga Sūtra 2.54,55 (Sādhana-Pāda 54 & 55)

Once chitta(self) withdraws to its original(true) being by renouncing external objects then sensory control naturally comes following means gaining absolute control over the senses


स्वविषयसंप्रयोगाभावे चित्तस्वरूपानुकार इवेति चित्तनिरोधे चित्तवन्निरुद्धानीन्द्रियाणि नेतरेद्रियजयवदुपायान्तरमपेक्षन्ते यथा मधुकर्राजं मक्षिका उत्पतन्तमनूत्पतन्ति, निविशमानमनुनिविशन्ते तथेन्द्रियाणि चित्तनिरोधे निरुद्धानीत्येष प्रत्याहारः ॥५४॥



svaviṣayasaṁprāyogā bhāve chittaswarupānukar iveti chittavnnirudhani chittannirudhadhaṇi indriyaṇi itaredriyajayavadupāyāntarampekshnte

Yathā madhukarrājam makshikā utpatantmanutpatanti, niviśmānmanūniviśante tathendriyāṇi chittanirodhe niruddhānityeṣ pratyāhār 54


जिस प्रकार उड़ती हुई रानी मधुमख्खी के पीछे मधुमख्खियाँ उड़ती हैं और जब रानी मधुमख्खी  बैठ जाती है तो अन्य मधुमख्खियाँ भी उसके  पीछे बैठ जाती है अर्थात उसका अनुसरण करती हैं उसी प्रकार चित्त के विषय संयोग-अभाव की स्थिति मे इन्द्रियाँ भी विषय-विरक्त हो जाती हैं


Sences follow mind in the same way as hive of bees follow queen bee. So when mind withdraws to its real self then senses (indriyā) aligned in the same way. (The withdrawal achieved by Cessation of involvement, not by suppression).

Yoga Niyam नियम

Yoga Niyam नियम (Sanskrit: niyamāḥ)

(Click to read Part-1 of Yoga )

Niyam नियम

शौचमिज्या तपो दानं स्वाध्यायो पनिग्रहः व्रत मौनोपवासं  च स्नानं नियमा च दश

  1. śaucha (शौच) cleanliness
  2. Ijya (इज्या) = yajña (यज्ञ)
  3. Tapa (तप) asceticism,
  4. Daan (दान) charity
  5. Swadyaya (स्वाध्याय) study and think over Sacred Scriptures by self
  6. Panigraha (पनिग्रह स्तुति) 
  7. Vrata (व्रत) resolution, take decision to do something or to behave in a certain manner
  8. Mauna (मौन) refusal to speak
  9. Upavasa (उपवास) fasting
  10. Snana (स्नान) bathing bathe


Patañjali Yoga Sutra gives reference to five Niyama

शौचसन्तोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः॥३२॥
Śaucasantoṣatapaḥsvādhyāyeśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ||32||


  1. śaucha (शौच) cleanliness 
  2. santoṣa (संतोष) contentment
  3. tapa (तप) asceticism,
  4. svādhyāya (स्वाध्याय) study and think over Sacred Scriptures by self
  5. īśvara praṇidhānāni (ईश्वर-प्रणिधान) Devotion to God (Supreme)


Learned having profound knowledge of Hatha Yoga śāstra (हठ योग)

gives reference of ten Niyama

तपः सन्तोष आस्तिक्यं दानम् ईश्वर-पूजनम्।

सिद्धान्त-वाक्य-श्रवणं ह्रीमती च जपो हुतम्।
नियमा दश सम्प्रोक्ता योग-शास्त्र-विशारदैः॥१.१८॥


Tapaḥ santoa āstikyaṁ dānamīśvarapūjanam|
Siddhāntavākyaśravaṇaṁ hrīmatī ca japo hutam|
Niyamā daśa samproktā yogaśāstraviśāradaiḥ||


  1. tapa (तप) asceticism,
  2. santoṣaḥ (संतोष) contentment
  3. āstik (आस्तिक)  theist
  4. dāna (दान) charity
  5. īśvara pūjanam (ईश्वर पूजनम्) worship of God
  6. siddhānta- vākya- śravaṇam (सिद्धान्त-वाक्य-श्रवणं) listening of principles
  7. hrī (ह्री) a painful emotion resulting from an awareness of inadequacy. modesty
  8. matī (मति) – intellect
  9. japa (जप) recitation of Mantra(etc.) in a low continuous indistinct sound; often accompanied by movement of the lips without the production of articulate speech
  10. hutam (हुतम्)  to give offering (Ahuti) in yajña (यज्ञ),  or sacrifice


Yoga and Yogasana

In today’s world general understanding of Yoga word is often confined with Yoga Asana आसन (literary meaning seated position) which is only third step approaching towards Yoga.

The word Yoga in philosophical term means to unite (with Supreme Being). Yoga is ultimate aim given in Indian philosophy.

I am writing few lines about yoga in reference to Patanjali’s Astanga Yoga.

अष्टांग अष्ट = Asht is for eight in Sanskrit and अंग = anga means part


1.            Yama (यम) Contain or Forbear 

2.            Niyam (नियम) principle and rules

3.            Aasana (आसन) the arrangement of the body and its limbs in particular manners for physical and mental             wellness

4.            Pranayam (प्राणायाम) to control breath (life force)

5.            Pratyahaar (प्रत्याहार) withdraw from desires

6.            Dharna (धारणा) assiduousness

7.            Dhyana (ध्यान) Meditation

8.            Samadhi (समाधि) State of a living self in deep meditation and different consciousness level. The state of body  visibly still for others.


 यम  Yama: (to Contain or Forbear) self control is the first step towards Yoga. Yajnavalka Smriti gives subdivision of ten these are …

ब्रह्मचर्यं दया क्षान्तिर्दानं सत्यम कल्कता अहिंसाऽस्ते यमाधुर्ये दमश्चेति यमाः स्मृताः

याज्ञवल्क स्मृति Yājñavalkya Smṛti

1. Brahmcharya ब्रह्मचर्य celibacy

2. Daya दया Compassion

3. Kshanti क्षान्ति Fortitude/Patient (adjective)

4. Daan दान Charity

5. Satya सत्य Speaking Truth

6. Akalka अकल्क Free of extraneous elements of any kind

7. Ahimsa अहिंसा non-violence or not to harm anyone in any manner by thought(mansa), word (Vaacha),            or deed (karmana)

8. Asteya अस्तेय non-stealing

9. Madhurya माधुर्य Sweetly

10 Dama दम curtail / inhibit


In Patañjali’s Yoga Sūtras (Astanga Yoga) gives details of five of these Yama.

अहिंसा सत्य अस्तेयं ब्रह्मचर्य अपरिग्रह यमः||

साधना पद


1.            Ahimsa (अहिंसा): non-violence

2.            Satya (सत्य): truth speaking

3.            Asteya (अस्तेय): non stealing

4.            Brahmacharya (ब्रह्मचर्य): celibacy.

5.            Aparigraha (अपरिग्रह): absence of desire of owning


In Hatha Yoga ten types of Yama are mentioned.

अहिंसा सत्यम् अस्तेयं ब्रह्मचर्यं क्षमा धृतिः।

दयार्जवं मिताहारः शौचं चैव यमा दश॥ हठ-योग-१.१७॥

1.            Ahimsa (अहिंसा) non-violence

2.            Satya (सत्य) truth speaking

3.            Asteya (अस्तेय) non stealing

4.            Brahmacharya (ब्रह्मचर्य) celibacy

5.            Kshama (क्षमा) Forgiveness

6.            Dhriti (धृति) assimilate

7.            Daya (दया) Compassion

8.            Arjava (अर्जव) innocence

9.            Mitahara (मितहार) balanced consumption of food

10.          Shaucha (शौच) purity


Moonrise time Karwa (Karva) Chauth on 27 October 2018

Moonrise time Karwa (Karva) Chauth on 27 OCTOBER 2018
Date Moonrise Hrs Moonrise PM
NEW DELHI, INDIA India standard Time 27-Oct-18 19:55   7.55 pm
VARANASI (U.P.) INDIA India standard Time 27-Oct-18 19:37   7.37 pm
MUMBAI  INDIA India standard Time 27-Oct-18  20:30  8:30 pm
LONDON, UK  GMT 27-Oct-18 20:48
TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA  Local Time 27-Oct-18 20:38
WASHINGTON DC, USA  Local Time 27-Oct-18 20:41
HONOLULU, HAWAII USA  Local Time 27-Oct-18 20:52
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA  Local Time 27-Oct-18 20:52
NEWARK, NEW JERSEY,USA  Local Time 27-Oct-18 20:25
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA  Local Time 27-Oct-18 20:31
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, USA  Local Time 27-Oct-18 20:17
NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA  Local Time 27-Oct-18 20:24
HOUSTON        USA   Local Time  27-Oct-18 21:17
LOS ANGELES USA Local Time 27-Oct-18  20:43


DUBAI Local Time 27-Oct-18 20:02


नक्षत्र वृक्ष Plants & Trees of 27 Nakshatras (Stars)

नक्षत्र वृक्ष Plants & Trees of 27 Nakshatras (Stars)

Vastu plants and trees

Trees in Vedic Astrology (Zodiac) an article by Prama Chopra (प्रमा चोपड़ा) dedicated to 2011 International Year of Forests

(For Hindi and Sanskrit chart : scroll down)

No. Nakshatra Excelling Deity  Nakshatra Tree English Botanical Name
1 Ashwini Ashvini Twins Ras* Tree *
2 Bharani Yama Vrish* Tree *
3 Kritika Agni Fig tree Ficus racemosa
4 Rohini Brahma JavaPlum Syzygium cumini
5 Mrigashira Indu (Chandrama) Catechu Tree Acacia catechu
6 Ardra Rudra Black Eaglewood Pterocarpus santalinus
7 Punarvasu Aditi Bamboo cane Bambusa arundinacea
8 Pushya Brihaspati Pipal Ficus religiosa
9 Aslesha Sarpa Nagkesar Mesua ferrea
10 Magha Pitri Banyan tree Ficus benghalensis
11 Poorvaphalguni Bhag Flame of the Forest Butea monosperma
12 Uttaraphalguni Aryamā Rudrākṣa Elaeocarpus ganitrus
13 Hasta Sūrya/ Savitṛ Indian Soapberry Sapindus mukorossi
14 Chitra Tvaṣtā Bengal Quince Aegle marmelos
15 Swati Vāyu Arjun Tree Terminalia arjuna
16 Vishakha Indragni Wood Apple Feronia elephantum
17 Anuradha Mitra Maulsari Mimusops elengi
18 Jyehstha Indra Silk cotton tree Salmalia malabarica
19 Moola Naiṛti Saal Tree Shorea robusta
20 Poorvashadha Āpah Rattan(cane) Salix tetraspeama/ Arundinaria gigantea
21 Uttarashadha Viśvedevā Jackfruit Tree Artocarpus incisa
22 Shravana Viṣṇu Gigantic Swallow wart Calotropis gigantea
23 Dhanshita Vasu Khejri tree Prosopis cineraria/ Prosopis spicigera
24 Satabisha Varuṇa Burflower-tree, Cadamba Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.)
25 Poorvabhadrapada Ajaikpād Mango Mangifera indica
26 Uttarabhadrapada Ahirbudhanya Indian Lilak Azadirachta indica
27 Revati Pūṣan Ellopa Tree Madhuca longifolia

27 Nakshatra trees’ Names in Sanskrit and Hindi

   Nakṣatra Name नक्षत्र नक्षत्र देवता वृक्ष नाम संस्कृत हिंदी
1 Ashvinī अश्विनी अश्विनौ रस वृक्ष * रस वृक्ष
2 Bharaṇī भरणी यम वृष वृक्ष * वृष वृक्ष
3 Kṛttikā कृत्तिका अग्नि उदुम्बर उदुंबर /गुलर
4 Rohiṇī रोहिणी ब्रह्मा जम्बु जाम्बुल, जामुन
5 Mrigashīrā मृगशिरा इन्दु खदिर, खैर खैर
6 Ārdrā आर्द्रा रुद्र कृष्णप्लक्ष, कृष्णागरु कृष्ण अगरु, अगर
7 Punarvasu पुनर्वसु अदिति वंश वंश, बांस
8 Pushya पुष्य गुरु पिप्पल अश्वत्थ, पीपर
9 Āshleshā आश्लेषा सर्प नाग वृक्ष नागकेसर या नागचम्पा
10 Maghā मघा पितृ, पितर वट बड/ वट
11 Pūrvā Phālgunī पूर्वाफाल्गुनी भग पलाश किंशुक, पलाश
12 Uttarā Phālgunī उत्तरा फाल्गुनी अर्यमा अक्ष (रूद्राक्ष) अक्ष
13 Hasta हस्त सूर्य अरिष्ट= ritha Ritha
14 Chitrā चित्रा त्वष्टा श्रीवृक्ष बिल्व, बेल
15 Svātī स्वाती वायु अर्जुन कौहा / कोह
16 Viśākhā विशाखा इन्द्राग्नि विकंकत कपित्थ, कैथ
17 Anurādhā अनुराधा मित्र बकुल मौलसरी
18 Jyeshthā ज्येष्ठा इन्द्र वेष्टः शाल्मली / सेवर
19 Mūla मूल निर्ऋति सर्ज्ज अजकर्ण, साल/ सखुआ/ हेंद
20 Pūrva Ashādhā पूर्वाषाढा आपः वञ्जुल, Vañjula वेतस्, बैंत, नरकुल
21 Uttarā Aṣāḍhā उत्तराषाढा विश्वेदेवाः पनस कटहल
22 Śravaṇa श्रवण विष्णु अर्क आंकडा
23 Dhanisthā (Śrāviṣṭha) धनिष्ठा वसु शमी समी/ सफेद कीकर
24 Shatabhishā शतभिषक् (शततारका) वरुण कदम्ब कदंब
25 Pūrva Bhādrapadā पूर्वाभाद्रपद अजैकपाद आम्र आम्र, आम
26 Uttarā Bhādrapadā उत्तरभाद्रपद अहिर्बुध्न्य पिचुमन्द(निम्ब), नीम नीम, निम्ब/ तिक्तक/ अरिष्ट
27 Revatī रेवती पूषा मधु, महुवा मधुक, महुवा

Related Article

Origin of 27 Nakshatra Trees

कृत्तिका नक्षत्र उदुंबर /गुलर
Kritika Nakshtra Tree Gular
Gular Tree
Kritika Nakshatra Tree






कृत्तिका उदुंबर उदुंबर /गुलर

4 Rohini Nakshatra
Java Plum Syzygium cumini
4 रोहिणी नक्षत्र
जम्बु जाम्बुल, जामुन
Mrigashira Nakshtra
Mrigashira Nakshtra tree Khair






मृगशिरा खदिर खैर
Punarvasu Nakshtra Tree Bamboo cane







पुनर्वसु वंश बांस

Champa Flowe

Ashlesha Nakshatra tree
Ashlesha Nakshatra tree



Champa flower or Plumeria CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM



आश्लेशा चंपा चंपा

10 Magha Nakshatra Banyan tree Ficus benghalensis Maghā मघा नक्षत्र वट वृक्ष बड का पेड़

10 Magha  Nakshatra Banyan tree Ficus benghalensis
10 Maghā मघा नक्षत्र वट वृक्ष बड का पेड़

Palash bloom near astroworld



      Flame of the Forest BUTEA MONOSPERMA



पूर्वा फाल्गुनी किंशुक पलाश
Chitra Nakshatra Tree Bel
Chitra Nakshatra Tree Bilva






चित्रा बिल्व बेल
Anuradha Nakshtra Tree Maulsari
Anuradha Nakshtra Tree Maulsari






अनुराधा बकुल मौलसरी
Moola Nakshatra Tree Saal
Moola Nakshatra Tree Saal (Shorea robusta)
मूल अजकर्ण साल/ सखुआ / हेंद



Shorea robustra MANGIFERA INDICA



मूल अजकर्ण साल/ सखुआ/ हेंद
Uttrashda Nakshtra Tree_कटहल( Katahal)
Uttarashadha Tree Jackfruit Tree








उत्तराषाढा पनस कटहल
Kadamba tree कदंब
Kadamba Fruit
24 Satabisha Burflower-tree, Cadamba Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.)
24 शतभिषक् (शततारका) कदम्ब कदंब
Nakshatra Tree Mango नक्षत्र वृक्ष आम
Poorvabhadrapada Nakshatra Tree Mango
Mango Tree
Poorvabhadrapada tree Mango






पूर्वभाद्रपदा आम्र आम
Uttara Bhadrapada Nakshatra Tree
Uttara Bhadrapada Nakshatra Tree






उत्तराभाद्रपदा निम्ब/ तिक्तक/ अरिष्ट नीम

Karak Chaturthi(करक चतुर्थी) Karwa (Krava) Chauth


अंगारकी संकष्टी श्री गणेश चतुर्थी

IS ON Sunday 27 OCTOBER 2018








Chicago, Illinois, United States MOONRISE 20:17, 27 OCTOBER 2018

New York, New York, United States MOONRISE 20:24  27 OCTOBER 2018

Newark, New Jersey, United States MOONRISE 20:25  27 OCTOBER 2018

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States MOONRISE 20:31  27 OCTOBER 2018







Karak Chaturthi (करक चतुर्थी ) commonly known as Krava Chauth (करवा चौथ, ਕਰਵਾ ਚੌਥ).


Karak Chaturthi (Karva Chauth) is fasting festival for Hindu women for suhag or saubhagya(marital bliss) and well being. The moment we hear word ‘Karva Chauth’ an impression of a women offering water to moon appears in our imagination. Besides being a ritual of this fasting festival it has a deep spiritual significance.

Karak in Sanskrit means a pitcher or ‘pot with a spout’ for containing water used by Sanyasi


Chaturthi or chauth means fourth day after New Moon and Full Moon. In hindu calendar each day is assigned to specific Daity and cathurthi is the day of Lord Ganesha.

यस्मादुमापतिः सार्ध्यमुमयातमधिष्ठि तः

तंदृष्ट्वाचाष्टमांशेन तस्मात् सोमोsभवच्छिशुः।।

source मत्स्य पुराणम्

In Matsya Puran (chapter 23) association of Moon with Lord Shiva and Goddess Uma Parvati is described how they crested Chandra (Moon) on there Shikhar (head). Consequently Chadrashekhar [1] is one the Shiva’s adjective. One name of Ganesha is Bhaal Chandra [2] (Moon on forehead) for the same. So Moon is integral part of Shiva Parivar. Monday being day of Shiva. Soma is Chandra thus Somwar in Sanskrit means day of moon.

So seeing Moon for worship is in fact symbolic of having a sight of Shiva Parivaar(family). Suhag Gauri is the Deity of Marital Bliss and Ganesha is source of all the Happiness is worshiped in this way.

Karva is used in tendering Jal Arghya (which is valuable and deserve to be offered. Water is one of the element of (panchtatva puja ) to offer as a token of respect make offering of water by pouring it on deity thus falls on earth).

Karva Chauth occurs every year on Kartik Krishnapaksha chaturthi as per hindu calendar.

(Krishnapaksha is the waning moon fortnight in other words fortnight after full moon)

Many legends Katha associated with the karva chauth.


[1] ChanraShekhar ChanraShekhar ChanraShekhar Pahi Maam ।

ChanraShekhar ChanraShekhar ChanraShekhar Raksha Maam ।।


[2] Navamam BhalChandram cha Dashmam tu Vinayakam ।

Ekadasham  Ganpatim  Dvadasham  tu   Gajananam   ।।

source Narad Puranam