Astrology

# The History, Science and Mathematics of Indian (Hindu हिंदू) and Other Calendars 1

## History of Calendars

### A book by Rajesh Kumar Chopra

Multiple calendar systems are being followed in this large country, India, with diverse cultures; and though each of them is individually accurate based on its adopted principles, the difference is not easily understood due to mingling of them over many centuries. Another highlight of the confusion is the names of the months being same in most of the Hindu calendars.

A festival falling on different dates in different years is a common feature of all religions. For Hindus, the Hōlī Festival may occur on any day from March 1 to March 29; for Muslims the Īd may happen on any day of the year; whereas for Christians, the Easter Sunday may occur from March 22 to April 25 or as celebrated by some orthodox churches from April 3 to May 10. This does not happen arbitrarily, but there is Simple Science and Mathematics behind this.

Before going through the chapters, one must understand that the simplicity is not the Nature’s nature. Though the Nature follows its set of rules, it does not like round numbers, as it has an affinity to fractions and variations. Take the example of the ratio between the circumference of a circle to its diameter. It is denoted by a Greek Letter Pi (π) which is an irrational number, i.e. its value cannot be expressed exactly as a fraction or decimals. Though you can do some approximations, like 22/7 or 355/113, or say, represent it till 10 digits as 3.14159265359. People have calculated its value even till the 2,000,000,000,000,000th digit.

It would have been wonderful if we had exactly 4 weeks in a month. Counting of weeks would have been so much easier. Or each month could have been only of 30 days, a year of 360 days, and of course, no leap year. A lot better would have been a year of 100 days and 10 month in a year. But it is not. And therefore, I am writing this book with the objective of making the subject easy to understand. You may use your discretion in case of any difference of opinion or if you find any inconsistency which could have crept in inadvertently while collecting facts and figures from different sources. I have also used हिंदीHindī spellings (देवनागरी Devanāgarī script) for some words for Indian readers.

I also acknowledge the other scholars, whose views and citations have been indirectly reflected in this book. Brought to my knowledge I shall be happy to include their reference.

The objective of writing this book is to make people understand the calendar rather than to Re-Search.

I would highly appreciate all the suggestions and comments for any improvement.

RK CHOPRA

The Science behind Indian (Hindu) Calendars

# Mars – Saturn combination and Stars Wars of 2018 by PRAMA CHOPRA 0

### by PRAMA CHOPRA

Chances of war or catastrophe in the world in the year of 2018. A lot of speculation is going about the world politics. Last year in 2017, media all around the world was struck with paranoia of North Korean Kim, however, nothing happened to a drastic level where the entire world would have felt the brunt. In this year of 2018 television channels and WhatsApp forwards continue to give importance to such reports and jokes.

Read an Astrological analysis of planetary movement in 2018 and world events.

Mars – Saturn combination and Stars Wars of 2018 by PRAMA CHOPRA

Author Prama Chopra astrologer in Gurugram

# Origin of 27 Nakshatra Trees 0

## Origin of 27 Nakshatra Trees (Nakṣatra in Sanskrit)

### उडुंबरश्चाग्निधिष्ण्ये रोहिण्यां जंबुकस्तरुः  ॥ ॥

uḍuṃbaraścāgnidhiṣṇye rohiṇyāṃ jaṃbukastaruḥ ॥ ॥

Translation in English:

Ras Tree originates from twins. Twins here means Ashwin kumaras the first Nakshatra Ashwini (Aśvinī) named after the twin deity Aśvin. Ras in Sanskrit means liquid; at some places ras tree it is translated as Coconut tree and reference of pomegranate tree also found.

The Nakshatra ruled by deity of south direction Yama that is Bharaṇī Nakshatra. Vrisha tree originates from the lord of Bharani Nakshatra. Ink fruit tree Bhilawan (Semecarpus anacardium) synonym is also Vrisha.

Fig tree (Ficus racemosa) originates from The Nakshatra ruled by the Deity Agni (Vedic lord of Fire) governing Kritika Nakshtra (Kṛttikā Nakṣatra)

Rohini Nakshatra (Rohiṇī Nakṣatra) gives origin to Java Plum (Syzygium cumini)

Translation in Hindi:

रस वृक्ष की उत्पत्ति यमक (युग्म) से हुई। यमक का तात्पर्य यहाँ दोनों अश्विन कुमारों से है जो जुड़वाँ भाई हैं तथा अश्विनी नक्षत्र के अधिपति हैं, रस वृक्ष का अर्थ नारियल तथा  कहीं अनार भी मिलता है

दक्षिण दिशा के अधिपति यम से जिसका सम्बन्ध है भरणी से वृष वृक्ष की उत्पत्ति हुई,

भल्लातक (भिलावाँ) को भी वृष कहते हैं

अग्नि जिसके अधिपति हैं अर्थात कृतिका से उदुम्बर (गूलर),

रोहिणी से जामुन (जम्बू) पेड़ की उत्त्पत्ति हुई

### संभूतोऽदितिभाद्वंशः पिप्पलः पुष्यसंभवः  ॥ ॥

saṃbhūto ‘ditibhādvaṃśaḥ pippalaḥ puṣyasaṃbhavaḥ ॥ ॥

Chandra (lord Moon) who rules Mrigshira Nakshatra (Mrigashīrā Nakṣatra) bears Catechu tree (Acacia catechu)

Rudra (lord Shiva), who is deity of Ardra Nakshatra (Ārdrā Nakṣatra) Black Eaglewood tree (Pterocarpus santalinus)

Aditi who is ruler that Nakshatra (means) Punarvasu Nakshatra gives origin to Bamboo cane (Bambusa arundinacea)

Pipal tree ‘the sacred fig’ (Ficus religiosa) originates from Pushya Nakshatra.

इंदु (चन्द्रमा ) जिसके स्वामी है अर्थात मृगशिरा नक्षत्र से खदिर (खैर ,कथ्था),

रूद्र के नक्षत्र से अर्थात आद्रा से कृष्ण प्लक्ष (काली पाकड़ )

अदिति जिसके स्वामी हैं अर्थात पुनर्वसु नक्षत्र  से वंश वृक्ष ( बाँस का पेड़ ) सम्भूत हुआ , पीपल वृक्ष पुष्य नक्षत्र से संभव हुआ

### पालाशो भाग्यभाज्जातः अक्षश्चार्यमसंभवः  ॥ ॥

pālāśo bhāgyabhājjātaḥ akṣaścāryamasaṃbhavaḥ ॥ ॥

Serpent lord who governs Aslesha Nakshatra (Āshleshā Nakṣatra), the Nagkesar tree (Mesua ferrea) originates,

Banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis) originates from the Magha Nakshatra (Maghā Nakṣatra) ruled by Lord Pitri

Bhag devta gives origin to Flame of the Forest (Butea monosperma) the Nakshatra associated with Bhag devta is Poorva Phalguni Nakshatra (Pūrvā Phālgunī Nakṣatra).

Aryamā devta excelling deity of Uttaraphalguni Nakshatra (Uttarā Phālgunī Nakṣatra) created Rudrākṣa tree (Elaeocarpus ganitrus)

नाग जिसके अधिपति अर्थात आश्लेषा नक्षत्र से नाग वृक्ष नागकेसर या नागचम्पा हुआ

पितृ, पितर के नक्षत्र मघा से बरगद (वट वृक्ष ) हुआ

भग देवता (पूर्वा फाल्गुनी) से पलाश

अर्यमा देवता (उत्तरा फाल्गुनी) से अक्ष वृक्ष (रुद्राक्ष) संभव हुआ

### स्वात्युक्षजोर्ऽजुनो वृक्षो द्विदैवत्याद्विकङ्कतः  ॥ ॥

ariṣṭavṛkṣo ravibhācchrīvṛkṣastvāṣṭrasaṃbhavaḥ ।

svātyukṣajor’juno vṛkṣo dvidaivatyādvikaṅkataḥ ॥ ॥

Vedic deity Sūrya (lord Sun), is the ruler of Hasta Nakshatra made Indian Soapberry tree (Sapindus mukorossi)

Deity Tvaṣtā the ruler of Chitra Nakshatra made Bengal Quince (Aegle marmelos)

Deity Vayu who is lord of Swati Nakshatra (Svātī Nakṣatra) produced Arjun Tree (Terminalia arjuna)

Deity Indragni who is ruler of Vishkha Nakshatra(Viśākhā Nakṣatra) produced Wood Apple tree (Feronia elephantum)

रवि सूर्य जिसके स्वामी हैं अर्थात हस्त से अरिष्ट (रीठी) का वृक्ष त्वष्टा के नक्षत्र चित्रा से श्री वृक्ष बेल, वायु के नक्षत्र स्वाति से अर्जुन वृक्ष, विशाखा से विकङ्कत (कपित्थ)

### सर्ज्जवृक्षो मूलभाञ्च वञ्जुलो वारिधिष्ण्यजः  ॥ ॥

mitrabhādbakulojāto viṣṭiḥ paurandararkṣajaḥ ।

sarjjavṛkṣo mūlabhāñca vañjulo vāridhiṣṇyajaḥ ॥ ॥

Mitra, the exelling deity of Anuradha Nakshtra (Anurādhā Nakṣatra) created Maulsari tree (Mimusops elengi)

Purander Indra devta who rules Jyeshtha Nakshatra (Jyeshthā Nakṣatra) created  Silk cotton tree (Salmalia malabarica)

Moola Nakshatra (Mūla Nakṣatra) brought out Saal tree (Shorea robustra)

Cane (Arundinaria gigantea) originates from lord Āpah ruler of Poorvashadha Nakshatra (Pūrva Ashādhā Nakṣatra), if

मित्र देवता के नक्षत्र अनुराधा से बकुल (मौलश्री) , पुरंदर इन्द्र के नक्षत्र से ज्येष्ठा से विष्टि, वेष्टः वृक्ष शाल्मली / सेवर,

मूल नक्षत्र से सर्ज (साल वृक्ष),

वारिधि अर्थात  आपः देवता के नक्षत्र पूर्वाषाढ़ा से वञ्जुल अर्थात बेंत उत्पन्न हुआ

### वसुधिष्ण्याच्छमीवृक्षः कदंबो वारुणर्क्षजः  ॥ ॥

panaso vaiśvabhājjātaścārkavṛkṣaśca viṣṇubhāt ।

Jackfruit Tree (Artocarpus incise) created by Deity Viśvedevā who is lord of Uttarashdha Nakshatra (Uttarā Aṣāḍhā Nakṣatra)

Vishnu who rules Shrwan Nakshtra (Śravaṇa Nakṣatra) gives Gigantic Swallow wart (Calotropis gigantean),

The Eight Vasu who rule Dhanishta Nakshatra (Dhanisthā  Nakṣatra) grew Khejri tree (Prosopis cineraria or Prosopis spicigera)

विश्वेदेवा से (उत्तराषाढ़ा) से पनस (कटहल),

विष्णु के नक्षत्र श्रवण से आक आंकड़ा,

वसु के नक्षत्र से धनिष्ठा से शमी वृक्ष,

वरुण के नक्षत्र शतभिषा से कदंब उत्पन्न हुआ

### मधुवृक्षः पौष्णधिष्ण्याद्धिष्ण्यवृक्षाः प्रकीर्तिताः  ॥ ॥

ajāheścūtavṛkṣobhūdbudhnyajaḥ picumandakaḥ ।

Ellopa Tree (Madhuca longifolia) brought to existence by Pusan the lord of Revati Nakshatra (Revatī Nakṣatra).

अजैकपाद  के नक्षत्र पूर्वाभाद्रपद से आम्र वृक्ष,

बुधान्यक ( अहिर्बुध्न्य )  नामक देवता से सम्बंधित उत्पन्न उत्तर भाद्रपद नक्षत्र से पिचुमन्द (नीम) व

मधु वृक्ष, महुआ की उत्पत्ति पूषन् देवता से हुइ, जो कि रेवती नक्षत्र अधिष्ठात्री हैं

Related Article

नक्षत्र वृक्ष Plants & Trees of 27 Nakshatras (Stars)

# Life on Mars and Astrology 0

Recent evidence of water on planet Mars once again proves scientific base of ancient Indian writings and Indian Astrology. In our scriptures planet Mars has always referred as son of mother Earth. Now scientists of this age have confirmed evidence of liquid water on Mars. Science is in process to search life on Mars. The scientists will witness more similarities of the Earth with Mars and there will be a time in the future when scientists of this age will recon our belief that planet Mars is originated from the Earth.

Here I am referring to legend of Birth of planet Mars or Mangal graha (in Sanskrit) given in Skand Purana.

There are several names given to Planet Mars. Prominent names such as Bhumisuta (भुमिसुत ) means Earth’s son. Kuja (कुज, कु= पृथ्वी ज = जन्म) Born from Earth; Bhumiputro (भूमिपुत्र) dhara suta (धरासुत) etc names of the Planet Mars (Mangal graha) have similar meaning. In English planet Mars is often called Red Planet. The earliest references in Indian text have bright Red colour associated with Mars. Prominent name of Mars is Angarak means “like burning coal or (burning solid fuel objects as wood pieces etc). The other name Lohit also means red. There are several references of birth of Mars.

#### The story is in context of the fight between Lord Shiva and the demon Andhakasur. When Lord Shiva’s Trident ( trishul ) injured Andhakasur. At that time a divine sound Resonated and OmkareshwarMahadev (Idol of Lord Shiva) appeared. In further shlokas origin of Mangal Angarak is narrated which reads as:

स्वेद्बिन्दुरथो तस्य ललाटादपतुद्भुवि

तस्मादङ्गा तत्तो जातो  रक्तमाल्या नुलेपनः । आवन्त्ये विषये जातो लोहिताङ्गो धरासुतः ॥ ॥

अङ्गारकस्तुरक्त्ताक्षो महादेव सुतस्तथा ।नामभिर्ब्राह्म्णै स्स्तुत्वा ग्रहमध्येऽपिरोपितः ।

#### Meaning in English : A sweat drop (perspiration) from fore head of Lord Shiva fallen on Earth. At this time Red coloured planet Mars originated from the mother Earth. After offering prayers Brahmins placed the planet in the orbit.

The birth of Mars took place in the region of Avanti (Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh). In this place Brahma established Angarkeshwar Mahadev. In further shlokas holy rituals and effects are narrated.

हिन्दी अनुवाद

स्कन्द पुराण के आवं त्याखंड अवन्ति क्षेत्र  माहात्म्य (अवंतिका खंड) में यह  वर्णन मिलता  है जब  शिव ने अंधकासुर को अपने त्रिशूल से  विदीर्ण किया उस समय वहां एक विशेष प्रकार की ध्वनि हुई जिससे की ओंकारेश्वर महादेव  का आविर्भाव हुआ। इसी संदर्भ में  आगे  के श्लोकों में मङ्गल ग्रह की उत्त्पत्ति का भी वर्णन है। जो की इस प्रकार है।

“उस  समय  भगवान शिव के मस्तक  से जो स्वेद (पसीने) की बूँद पृथ्वी पर गिरी उससे अंगार के सामान लाल शरीर वाले मंगल धरती से उत्पन्न हुए।

अङ्गारक , रक्ताक्ष तथा  महादेव पुत्र  नामों से स्तुति करके ब्राह्मणों ने मंगल को ग्रहों के मध्य अपिरोपित (स्थापित) किया।  मंगल के उत्त्पत्ति तीर्थ अवन्ति क्षेत्र (उज्जैन) पर ब्रह्मा ने अंगारकेश्वर नाम के गण गन्धर्व सेवित उत्तम  शिव लिंग की स्थापना की। जो नर  मंगलवार को उस  तीर्थ में स्नान करके पूरी शुचिता (पवित्रता)  साथ अंगारकेश्वर के दर्शन करता है वह सर्व पापों से छूट जाता है।”

Reference:

महाविनायकः ख्यातस्त अस्माल्लोकेऽभवन्मुने

दर्शनात्तस्य देवस्य न विघ्नैः पीड्यतेनरः ।

मासेमासे चतुर्थ्यांयोऽ गणेशंपूजयेद्द्विजनतस्य विघ्नं जायेदि (तइ) हलोके परत्र च ।

स्वेद्बिन्दुरथो तस्य ललाटादपतुद्भुवि

तस्मादङ्गा तत्तो जातो  रक्तमाल्या नुलेपनः

आवन्त्ये विषये जातो लोहिताङ्गो धरासुतः ॥ ॥

अङ्गारकस्तुरक्त्ताक्षो महादेव सुतस्तथा ।

नामभिर्ब्राह्म्णै स्स्तुत्वा ग्रहमध्येऽपिरोपितः ।

तत्रतीर्थमथोत्पन्नमङ्गारेश्वरमुत्तमम् ।

ब्रह्मणा स्थापितं लिङ्गं गणगन्धर्व सेवितम् ।

शुचिस्तत्र च यस्स्नाति नरस्त्वाङ्गार वासरे

दृष्ट्वाऽङ्गारेश्वरं सोऽथ मुच्यते सर्वपातकैः ॥ ॥

॥स्कन्द पुराण, आवंत्याखंड, अवन्ति क्षेत्र माहात्म्य॥

# Jupiter-Moon Yoga (Guru Chandra Yoga) 8

## Guru Chandra (Guru Chandi / Chandee)

### गुरू-चन्द्र  / गुरू-चाँदी योग

When Jupiter is in conjunction /1st quadrant from Moon it is Guru Chandra Yoga (and by default it is Gaja Kesari) and Jupiter in other quadrants from Moon i.e. 4th (fourth), 7th (seventh) and 10th (tenth) then it is termed Gaja-kesari Yoga.

It is the most elevated yoga among all types of Gaja Kesari Yoga. Ancient Scholars had further deciphered this as Guru Chandra Yoga. And example of this kind of Gaja Kesari one could see in the horoscope of lord Rama where Moon in own sign Cancer is in conjunction with exalted Jupiter. Click here to read full article about Guru Chandra Yoga.

In India Astrology Jupiter is called Guru or Brihaspati by virtue of being in Guru of Devtas the Gods. The word Guru in Sanskrit means big, large. In Astrology Dev Guru Brahaspati (Jupiter) is planet for Knowledge, wisdom, eloquence and righteousness. Chaandee (Silver) is in reference to Moon. In Urdu and Hindi Moon is called Chaand (चाँद). In Hindi and Urdu languages have adjectives for moonlight chandani. In Hindi word for silver is Chandi/ Chandee and has derived its name from Chaand word. In astrology Guru Chaandee Yoga means Guru Chandra Yoga. In other words conjunction of Jupiter and Moon.

Why this conjunction is so auspicious:

Jupiter becomes exalted in Zodiac Cancer. Moon is the owner of Cancer sign.

Jupiter and Moon are friend planets. (Adimitra).

Both the planets are natural benefic (Shubha Graha)

In association Jupiter and Moon enhances each others effect.

# Hamsa Yoga in Astrology (हंस योग) 6

Hamsa Yoga (हंस योग)

In Sanskrit Panch means Five, Maha means great and Purush means man (individual).

The Yoga is formed by five planets Mars, mercury, Jupiter, Venus or Saturn.

Any of these five planets in it’s own sign, Mool Trikona or exalted in a kendra (quadrant) which is 1, 4, 7 and 10th house.

Kendra is Vishnu sthan, Mahapurusha Yogas are formed only when the planets are in Kendras
i.e. 1/4/7/10 house, not in any other house. Kendras are Vishnu sthanas and Mahapurusha Yogas
forms the five great qualities of Vishnu. Thus Mhapurusha yogas are called Pancha mahapurusha YOGAS. Birth chart of Lord Rama Chandra and Krishana bhagwan  had multiple of these Mahapurush Yoga.

Name of these Five Yoga as per association of different planets

Ruchak Yoga                Mars

Hamsa Yoga                 Jupiter

Malavya Yoga               Venus

Shasha Yoga                Saturn

Mahapurusha Yoga, whatever that planetary energy represents will be accentuated in the individual’s life.

#### Hamsa Yoga

When Jupiter is Exalted or Moola Trikona or Own House and placed in quadrant 1/4/7/10 (Kendra/ Cardinal).

Exalted in Cancer upto 5°

Moola Trikona Sagittarius upto 10°

Own House Sagittarius and Pisces

Hamsa Yoga cannot occur with reference to every sign of the zodiac in the same house.

Table is given below for every ascendant

Cancer Sagittarius Pisces          1st House

Capricorn Gemini Virgo              7th House

Libra Pisces Gemini                   10th house

Aries Virgo Sagittarius               4th house

Yogphal (effect)

हंसे सद्भिरभ्रष्टुतः क्षितिपतिः शङ्खब्जमत्स्याङ्कुशै

– श्र्चिन्हैः पाद्कराङ्कितः शुभवपुर्मृष्टान्नमुग्धार्मकः ||

फल दीपिका

Phal Deepika

Hamsa Yoga person has a beautiful personality. Fair complexioned, Reddish face, broad forehead, long nose, wide chest and good feet. Golden glowing skin with colour of eyes is that of pallor of honey, as yellow colour Pita Varna is sorted for Jupiter. Timber of voice is sweet like swan (literary), Eloquent and desirous to do good things for others. Number of friends and extollers keep increasing.

He has a fleshy body with robust built.

The Hansa Yoga jatak is ‘a man of words’ the person has ability to give impartial judgements. Nothing can lure and deviate from doing so. Hamsa purusha has magnetic personality this increases number of acquaintances.

People born with Hansa Yoga have life span of sixty to hundred years. They have a happy phase in old age. Family life is also successful.

Jupiter is the planet of Dharma, Religion and righteousness so these qualities are predominant in the persons born with this yoga. The person is likely to be attracted to oriental philosophies especially towards Hindu Religion.

The Hamsa means in Sanskrit (हंस haṃsa pronounced hans) an aquatic bird Goose or Swan. It is a synonym of knowledge (divine) in Sanskrit. In Indian philosophy meaning of Hamsa is elaborated well and associated with Purity, quality, detachment and faithfulness. Hamsa word widely used as metaphor Sanskrit and Hindi literature and poetry such as “नीर क्षीर विवेक” ability to filter or separate milk from water from a mixture of milk and water symbolises ability to separate or choose quality from anything. Another pharse “या हंसा मोती चुगे या लंघन कर जाये” either hamsa eats pearls or skip the meal this means Hamsa remains uncompromised for good. Hamsa is (वाहन) carrier of the creator Brahma and Goddess of knowledge Devi Saraswati.

Region related to Hamsa yoga

Since the yoga is related to Jupiter and Cardinal Direction of North – East is for Planet Jupiter.

In Jaatakparijaat region for Guru Jupiter is from Gautami to Vindyachal.

In Raja Rama’s Horoscope exalted Jupiter is in ascendant with Moon forming Hamsa Yoga along with *Guru-Chandi (silver)

*Guru Chandra (Guru Chandi/ Chandee Yoga)

In Vikramaditya II horoscope Exalted Jupiter in Cancer Zodiac occupying quadrant (Ascendant in the case)

Famous people born with Hamsa yoga

Coming soon…

# Ruchaka Yoga (रूचक योग) 3

### Ruchaka Yoga (रूचक योग)

(in Indian Astrology by Astrologer Prama Chopra)

The Ruchaka yoga is one of the five Royal Yogas of Vedic Astrology Panchmaha Purusha Yoga.

The कारक  मंगल karak planet Mars forms Ruchaka Yoga. Like all other Mahapurusha yoga the association of powerful Mars planet with quadrant is necessary.

Ruchaka Yoga is formed when Mars in its own sign, Mool Trikona or exaltation occupies kendra (quadrant) which is 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th house.

Exalted in Capricorn upto 28°

Moola Trikona in Aries upto 12°

Own House (ruler) Aries and Scorpio

Ruchaka Yoga cannot occur with reference to every sign of the zodiac in the same house.

Table is given below for every ascendant

##### Cancer Aquarius Aries                              10th house

In Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces ascendants this yoga can not occur.

Yogphal (effect)

As per Mantrshwara’s Jatak Phal Deepika

दीर्घास्यो बहुसाहसाप्तविभवः शूरोऽरिहन्ता बली

गार्विष्टो रुचके प्रतीतगुणवान् सनापतिर्जित्वरः |

dIrghAsyo bahusAhasAptavibhavaH shUro.arihantA balI |

gArviShTo ruchake pratItaguNavAn sanApatirjitvaraH ||

Meaning:

Person born with Ruchaka Yoga has a long life. The native is strong, valorous and destroyer of enemies. Ruchak jatak has material comforts and has a good number of followers in masses. Has visible calibre with chesty mindset. Native is born with leadership qualities and becomes head of army/land and victorious through out.

कुजो  रुचकयोग  यूथे भूलाभं धनालाभञ्च दारापुत्रा अभिवर्धनं |

भ्रात्रीसौख्यं मनोत्साहं कृषिमूलाधनागमं विशेषतः ||

जातक मार्तण्डम्

kujo ruchakAyog yuthebhoolAbham dhanalAbhAnchA dArA puthrA abhivardhanam |

bhrAthrI soukhyam manotsAham krIshimoolA dhanAgamam viseshthaH ||

Jataka Marthandam

Meaning:

The native who has Ruchaka yoga formed by Mars the person gains land and property money. Blessed with wife/ wives and sons/ children. Brothers/ siblings are cause of happiness in the life of such native. The person is cheerful exquisite in temperament, farming and agriculture is source of good income especially.

Ruchaka in Sanskrit means ‘having, showing or conforming to good taste’.

In other references a type of salt is named Ruchak in Aayurveda.

One of the southern peak of Sumeru Parvatis Ruchak.

The Ruchak Yoga jatak has all the good qualities associated with planet Mars.

Like bravery, power, victory, proud. The native is of strong physique.

Mars is being planet for war so obviously Martians are supposed to be great in strength.

Region related to Ruchak yoga

Since the yoga is related to Mars and Cardinal direction of South is for Mars in general; regions south to Vindhyachal and further South of Sahyadri range (Satpura Parvat) relates to Ruchak Yoga.

In Jatak Paarijaat territory defined for Mars is from Krishna River in the North to Lanka in the south.

लङ्कादिकृष्णा सरिदन्तमारः सितस्ततो गौतमिकान्त भूयः |

विन्ध्यान्तमार्यः सुर्निम्ङ्गान्तं बुधः शनिः स्वात्तु हिमाचलान्तम् ||

jAtak pArijAt (chapter 2 shloka 25)

People with RUCHAKA MAHA PURUSHA YOGA

`Bhagavan Sri Ramachandra`
`Bagavan Sri Gautama Buddha`

Swami Vivekananda

Sri Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel

Aiswarya Rai Batchan

##### Salman Khan

Hindi film’s Tiger hero Salman Khan has Ruchaka Yoga in his tenth house. The Yoga Karak Dabang Mangal (Mars of 10°) in its exaltation sign Capricorn and positioning in quadrant (10th house) is giving rise to this yoga. Tenth House being house of Karma, name and fame etc. in astrology.

The Ascendant lord Mars in tenth house made him a self made person. Not every sons or daughters who have film background see the place which Salman Khan has created for himself.

Horoscope Salman Khan

# नक्षत्र वृक्ष Plants & Trees of 27 Nakshatras (Stars) 24

### Vastu plants and trees

Trees in Vedic Astrology (Zodiac) an article by Prama Chopra (प्रमा चोपड़ा) dedicated to 2011 International Year of Forests http://www.un.org/en/events/iyof2011/

(For Hindi and Sanskrit chart : scroll down)

27 Nakshatra trees’ Names in Sanskrit and Hindi

 Nakṣatra Name नक्षत्र नक्षत्र देवता वृक्ष नाम संस्कृत हिंदी 1 Ashvinī अश्विनी अश्विनौ रस वृक्ष * रस वृक्ष 2 Bharaṇī भरणी यम वृष वृक्ष * वृष वृक्ष 3 Kṛttikā कृत्तिका अग्नि उदुम्बर उदुंबर /गुलर 4 Rohiṇī रोहिणी ब्रह्मा जम्बु जाम्बुल, जामुन 5 Mrigashīrā मृगशिरा इन्दु खदिर, खैर खैर 6 Ārdrā आर्द्रा रुद्र कृष्णप्लक्ष, कृष्णागरु कृष्ण अगरु, अगर 7 Punarvasu पुनर्वसु अदिति वंश वंश, बांस 8 Pushya पुष्य गुरु पिप्पल अश्वत्थ, पीपर 9 Āshleshā आश्लेषा सर्प नाग वृक्ष नागकेसर या नागचम्पा 10 Maghā मघा पितृ, पितर वट बड/ वट 11 Pūrvā Phālgunī पूर्वाफाल्गुनी भग पलाश किंशुक, पलाश 12 Uttarā Phālgunī उत्तरा फाल्गुनी अर्यमा अक्ष (रूद्राक्ष) अक्ष 13 Hasta हस्त सूर्य अरिष्ट= ritha Ritha 14 Chitrā चित्रा त्वष्टा श्रीवृक्ष बिल्व, बेल 15 Svātī स्वाती वायु अर्जुन कौहा / कोह 16 Viśākhā विशाखा इन्द्राग्नि विकंकत कपित्थ, कैथ 17 Anurādhā अनुराधा मित्र बकुल मौलसरी 18 Jyeshthā ज्येष्ठा इन्द्र वेष्टः शाल्मली / सेवर 19 Mūla मूल निर्ऋति सर्ज्ज अजकर्ण, साल/ सखुआ/ हेंद 20 Pūrva Ashādhā पूर्वाषाढा आपः वञ्जुल, Vañjula वेतस्, बैंत, नरकुल 21 Uttarā Aṣāḍhā उत्तराषाढा विश्वेदेवाः पनस कटहल 22 Śravaṇa श्रवण विष्णु अर्क आंकडा 23 Dhanisthā (Śrāviṣṭha) धनिष्ठा वसु शमी समी/ सफेद कीकर 24 Shatabhishā शतभिषक् (शततारका) वरुण कदम्ब कदंब 25 Pūrva Bhādrapadā पूर्वाभाद्रपद अजैकपाद आम्र आम्र, आम 26 Uttarā Bhādrapadā उत्तरभाद्रपद अहिर्बुध्न्य पिचुमन्द(निम्ब), नीम नीम, निम्ब/ तिक्तक/ अरिष्ट 27 Revatī रेवती पूषा मधु, महुवा मधुक, महुवा

Related Article

Origin of 27 Nakshatra Trees

Kritika Nakshtra Tree Gular

Kritika Nakshatra Tree

 3 Kritika Fig tree FICUS RACEMOSA
 3 Kritika कृत्तिका उदुंबर उदुंबर /गुलर

Mrigashira Nakshtra tree Khair

 5 Mrigashira Acacia ACACIA SUNDRA
 5 Mrigashira मृगशिरा खदिर खैर

Punarvasu Nakshtra Tree Bamboo cane

 7 Punarvasu Bamboo cane BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA
 7 Punarvasu पुनर्वसु वंश बांस

Ashlesha Nakshatra tree

 9 Aslesha Champa flower or Plumeria CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM
 9 Aslesha आश्लेशा चंपा चंपा

10 Magha Nakshatra Banyan tree Ficus benghalensis Maghā मघा नक्षत्र वट वृक्ष बड का पेड़

 10 Magha  Nakshatra Banyan tree Ficus benghalensis 10 Maghā मघा नक्षत्र वट वृक्ष बड का पेड़

 11 Poorvaphalguni Flame of the Forest BUTEA MONOSPERMA
 11 Poorvaphalguni पूर्वा फाल्गुनी किंशुक पलाश

Chitra Nakshatra Tree Bilva

 14 Chitra BengalQuince AEGLE MARMELOS
 14 Chitra चित्रा बिल्व बेल

Moola Nakshatra Tree Saal (Shorea robusta)
मूल अजकर्ण साल/ सखुआ / हेंद

 19 Moola Shorea robustra MANGIFERA INDICA
 19 Moola मूल अजकर्ण साल/ सखुआ/ हेंद

 21 Uttarashadha Jackfruit Tree ARTOCARPUS INCISA

 24 शतभिषक् (शततारका) कदम्ब कदंब

……

# Islamic Calendar 0

#### Islamic Calendar

The purpose of this article is to make people of other religions conversant with Islamic calendar (lunar calendar) with reference to Astrology. The author is not an expert on Islamic matters. The information is gathered from sources whose authenticity is not verified. Readers’ discretion is advised. Suggestions and comments are welcomed.

Prophet Muhammad united the Arabian tribes into a single religion, Islam. He died in AD 632.  None of his sons survived into adulthood. Muhammad’s father-in-law (father of wife, ‘Aisha’), Abu Bakr, was named the khalifa or “Successor” forming new political formation: the caliphate. The choice of Abu Bakr disputed by others who held that Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib), his cousin and son-in-law (married to Fatimah Zahra) had been designated the successor by Prophet Muhammad himself. This contentious issue caused Muslims to later split into two groups, Shi’a and Sunnis. Shi’a Muslims regard Ali as the first Imam. Hasan, the son born in 625 AD, was the second Shia Imam and Husayn (Hussain), born in 626 AD, was the third Shia Imam. Hussain was killed in the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH).

Abu Bakr desired ‘Umar to be his successor. ‘Umar continued the war of conquests begun by Abu Bakr. He pressed into the Persian Empire itself, but he also headed north into Syriaand Byzantine territory and west into Egypt. By 640, Islamic military campaigns had brought all of Mesopotamia and most of Syria and Palestine under the control of Abu Bakr. Egypt was conquered by 642 and the Persian Empire by 643. These were some of the richest regions in the world. Within three centuries after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, the Arab Caliphates extended from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east.

The subsequent empires of the Umayyads (capital Damascus, Syria), Abbasids (capital Baghdad, Iraq), Fatimids (capital Cairo, Egypt) Ghaznavids capital Ghazni, Afghanistan), Seljuqs (capital Nishapur, Persia), Safavids (capital Tabiz, Persia), Mughals (capital Delhi, India), and Ottomans (capital Istanbul), were the great powers in the world.

At present 30% of the world’s population are Muslim (a person who follows Islam). 50 countries in the world have more than 50% Muslims in their population.

Islamic calendar started in the year 622 when Prophet Mohammad along with his followers migrated from Meccato Medina. The event is known as Hijra and the years after that as Hijri. The first day of each month starts at sun set if the Hilal (crescent moon) is sighted. A month can have maximum 30 days. Twelve months constitute a year which usually has 354 or 355 days. The year 2011 AD corresponds to the Islamic Year 1432 AH (After Hijra/ anno hegirae / Hijri).

The seven days of the week of Islamic calendar in Indian subcontinent are known as: Sanichar (Saturday), Itwaar (Sunday), Pîr (Monday), Mangal (Tuesday), Budh (Wednesday), Jumey’raat / Beefay (Thursday), Juma’h (Friday).

Some months are named after seasons. However, as the years are shorter than a tropical year of about 365 days, the seasons vary over the years. The 12 months are:

1          Muharram ul Haram, the First month means “Forbidden.” Even before Islam, this month was always known as a sacred month in which all unlawful acts were forbidden. It is one of the four months during which it is forbidden to wage war or fight.

The 10th day of Muharram commemorates the martyrdom of the Prophet Mohammed’s grandson- Hazrat Imam Hussein (Hussein Ibn Ali). During this month, while on a journey, Hazrat Imam Hussain, his family members and a number of his followers were surrounded by the forces of Yazid, the Muslim ruler of the time. During the siege, they were deprived of food and water and put to death. The incident happened at a place called Karbala in Iraq in 61st year after Hijra. This dispute was result of a disagreement among Muslims on the question of succession after the demise of Hazrat Ali, the fourth caliph. The Shia community in particular celebrates this festival with great earnest. They fast, offer prayers and recite the Quran in homage to the martyrs.

2          Safar the second month means “Empty” or “Yellow”. This time of the year was considered to be cursed, which was a misconception.

3          Rabi-Al-Awwal the third month means “First month of spring, whistling of the wind”.

The Holy Prophet was born in this month on 12th day which is celebrated as Milad-un-Nabi/Mawllid an Nabi.  The same day marks His death anniversary. ‘Barawafat’, the word ‘barah’ stands for the twelve days of the Prophet’s sickness.

4          Rabi-Al-Thani the fourth month means “Second month of spring”.

5        Jumādá-Al-Ulá or Jamādil Awwal the fifth month means “First month of summer, Rabi means dry”.

6          Jumādá Al-Ukhrá (Jamādil Ākhir) the Sixth month means “Second month of summer”.

7          Rajab the Seventh month means “to respect”. One of the sacred months in which fighting was forbidden prior to Islam. It is also called Rajab al Fard. Fard means alone; not like the other 3 consecutive sacred months.

8        Shaban the eighth month means “branch” or to spread and distribute” The Arabs used to branch out during this month to look for water.

SHAB-I-BARAT (Mid-Sha’ban) is fourteenth day of Shaban. God registers the actions of all men and dispenses their fates according to their deeds. It is celebrated with illuminations, fireworks and crackers. People distribute food and sweets in the name of their ancestors and offer flowers for their graves. The Shi’a associate this night with the birth of their last Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi.

#### 9          Ramadan (Ramzan) the ninth month means “intense heat”. (“Parched thirst” – this is the month of daytime fasting. All through the month of Ramzan the devout Muslims keep strict fast. Food is taken before sunrise and after sunset. Ramzan does not affect the daily routine.

10        Shawwal the tenth month means “Uplift/breakage”. “To be light and vigorous” Arabs believed that any marriage held in Shawwal would always turn out to be unsuccessful. Taken from the word “shala” which means “when the female camel gets pregnant”. When this name was given, the female camels used to get pregnant during this time of the year.

Eid-ul-Fitr, popularly known as the “Festival of Breaking of the Fast”, occurs as soon as the new moon of Shawwal is sighted at the end of the month of fasting, Ramadan or Ramzan. It is an occasion of feasting and rejoicing. Fitr is derived from the word ‘fatar’ meaning breaking. Fitr has another meaning derived from another word fitrah meaning ‘alms’. Special foods and delicacies are prepared for the day and are distributed among neighbors and friends. Celebration and prayers continues the next day.

11        Zul-Qa’dah or Dhul-Qi’dah the eleventh month means “to sit” or to “rest” and prepare for Hajj. This is also a sacred month when no warfare or fighting is allowed.

12        Zul-hijjah Dhul-Hijjah the twelfth month means “Hajj”. This is the last sacred month in which fighting is forbidden. Hajj is performed amongst first ten days.

On the 10th day falls EID-UL-ZUHA or Eid al Adha also called Bakrid.  It is one of the grandest festivals of the Muslims. Hazrat Ibrahim was ordered by Allah in a dream to sacrifice his dearest thing. So, he decided to offer his son and with the permission of his family blindfolded his son and struck him with his sword. To his amazement when he opened his eyes he saw that he had sacrificed a ram (dumba). So on this day a ram or a goat or a camel is sacrificed and distributed.

# Sasha Yoga (शश योग) 3

#### Sasha Yoga (शश योग) in Astrology

Sanskrit: Shasha शश (śaśá)

When Saturn occupies quadrant (Kendra) in its exaltation sign Libra or either in own house Capricorn/ Aquarius or Mool Trikona i.e. Aquarious 1-10°. This position of Saturn gives rise to Sasha Yoga in Astrology. This is one of the “five royal yogas of astrology” Panch Mahapurusha Yoga. Click here to Read full article on Pancha Mahapurusha Yoga

Shsha Yoga is formed only in these Ascendants: Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Leo, Libra, Scorpio, Capricorn and Aquarius.

Chart for House and Ascendants

1st House             Libra, Capricorn and Aquarius

4th House             Cancer, Libra and Scorpio

7th House             Aries, Cancer and Leo

10th House             Capricorn, Aries Taurus

Results:

This is the native born in Shasha Yoga has excellent political wit even if the person born in ordinary family. The native manage to have employees and servants under his/ her command. Shasha yog Jatak becomes head of the society; either it is village, town, or city or state. Native is of noble and humble nature on the one hand and political mind on the other makes the person extraordinary personality. The native’s growth is gradual and especially after 36 years of age. The person is blessed with good qualities of Saturn.

Many statesman and researchers have this yoga in their horoscope

शस्तः सर्वजनैः सुभ्रित्यबलवान ग्रामाधिपो वा नृपो
दुर्वृतः शशयोगजोSन्यवनितावित्तः सौख्यवान

shastaH sarvajanaiH subhR^ityabalavAn grAmAdhipo vA nR^ipo

durvR^ittaH shashayogajo.anyavanitAvittaH saukhyavAn |

लग्नेन्द्वोरपि योगपञ्चकमिदं संत्राज्यसिद्धिप्रदं
तेष्वेकादिषु भाग्यवान् नृपसमो राजा नृपेन्द्रोSअधिकः

# Bhadra Yoga भद्र योग 3

##### Bhadra yoga (भद्र योग) is one of the Pancha MahaPurusha Yoga.

When Mercury is Exalted or Moola Trikona or Own House and placed in quadrant 1/4/7/10 (Kendra). Bharda Yoga is formed.

Mercury rules Gemini and Virgo.

Exalted in Virgo upto 15°

Moola Trikona Virgo from 15° to 20°

Own House Gemini and Virgo

Bhadra Yoga cannot occur with reference to every sign of the zodiac. Bhadra Mahapurusha Yoga can not occur in Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Leo, Libra, Scorpio, Capricorn and Aquarius ascendants. It can be formed only in mutable signs as Gemini and Virgo occupies quadrant only under these ascendants.

Table is given below for the mutable signs ascendant

Gemini                                   1st House or 4th house

Virgo                                       1st House or 10th house

Sagittarius                             7th House or 10th house

Pisces                                     7th House or 4th house

Yogphal (effect)

आयुष्मान्  सकुशाग्रबुद्धिरमलो  विद्वज्जनश् लाधितो |

भूपो भद्रकयोगजोअतिविभवश्चा स्थानाकोलाहलाः ||

Bhadra (भद्र) in Sanskrit means noble/gentleman. Bhadra Yoga is formed with participation of Mercury.

So native is to be blessed with all the good qualities of Mercury (planet of intellect).

Jatak (Native) born under Bhadra Yoga is brave like a lion, the destructor of enemies. Courageous and finds the way out in difficult situations. The jatak has youthful looks with well built body structure and broad chest.

Bradra jatak is blessed with rare analytical mind and mercurial ability. The person accomplishes even impossible and unbelievable tasks that too with so much ease. They are expert in making quick decisions. They have logical mindset.

The native lives a long life. Progress comes gradually. Bhradra Purush rises to highest ranks or achieves highest aims. In ancient texts region of Magadha (modern Bihar state of India) is associated with this yoga. The native should become King of Magadha. Magadha was one among Sixteen Great States (Shodash Maha Janpad ) in 6th century B.C.

Bhdra yoga persons are ahead of their times and believe in innovative techniques. They are ambitious and progressive. They are always ready to serve society friends and relatives. They are admired for graceful behaviour.

Horoscope of philosopher and statesman Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

In his horoscope Bhadra Yoga is evident in Virgo ascendant. Mercury is of  1.18° (Exalted)

# Karak Chaturthi(करक चतुर्थी) Karwa (Krava) Chauth 0

IN THE YEAR 2018 ANGARKI SANKASHTI SHRI GANESH KARAK CHATURTHI (KARVA CHAUTH)

अंगारकी संकष्टी श्री गणेश चतुर्थी

IS ON Sunday 27 OCTOBER 2018

MOONRISE CHANDRODAYA (चन्द्रोदय) OF KARWA CHAUTH 2018 IN VARANASI 7.37 PM (19:37 HRS)

KARVA CHAUTH MOONRISE TIME 27 OCTOBER 2018 IN DELHI NCR GURUGRAM, GURGAON 7:57 PM (19:57 HRS)

KARWA CHAUTH MOONRISE TIME IN LONDON, ENGLAND, UNITED KINGDOM ON 27 OCTOBER 2018– 20:48 HRS GMT

KARWA CHAUTH MOONRISE TIME IN TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA ON 27 OCTOBER 2018– 20:38 HRS

KARWA CHAUTH MOONRISE TIME IN OTTAWA, ONTARIO, CANADA ON 27 OCTOBER 2018– 20:18 HRS

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, UNITED STATES KARVA CHAUTH 27 OCTOBER 2018 MOONRISE 20:08 Hrs

Chicago, Illinois, United States MOONRISE 20:17, 27 OCTOBER 2018

New York, New York, United States MOONRISE 20:24  27 OCTOBER 2018

Newark, New Jersey, United States MOONRISE 20:25  27 OCTOBER 2018

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States MOONRISE 20:31  27 OCTOBER 2018

WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, USA, KARVA CHAUTH MOONRISE – 20:41 Hrs.  27 OCTOBER 2018

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, KARVA CHAUTH MOONRISE – 20:52 HRS, 27 OCTOBER 2018

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNOA, UNITED STATES KARVA CHAUTH MOONRISE – 20:43 HRS, 27 OCTOBER 2018

HONOLULU, HAWAII, UNITED STATES KARVA CHAUTH MOONRISE – 20:52 HRS, 27 OCTOBER 2018

Karak Chaturthi (करक चतुर्थी ) commonly known as Krava Chauth (करवा चौथ, ਕਰਵਾ ਚੌਥ).

Karak Chaturthi (Karva Chauth) is fasting festival for Hindu women for suhag or saubhagya(marital bliss) and well being. The moment we hear word ‘Karva Chauth’ an impression of a women offering water to moon appears in our imagination. Besides being a ritual of this fasting festival it has a deep spiritual significance.

Karak in Sanskrit means a pitcher or ‘pot with a spout’ for containing water used by Sanyasi

Chaturthi or chauth means fourth day after New Moon and Full Moon. In hindu calendar each day is assigned to specific Daity and cathurthi is the day of Lord Ganesha.

यस्मादुमापतिः सार्ध्यमुमयातमधिष्ठि तः

तंदृष्ट्वाचाष्टमांशेन तस्मात् सोमोsभवच्छिशुः।।

source मत्स्य पुराणम्

In Matsya Puran (chapter 23) association of Moon with Lord Shiva and Goddess Uma Parvati is described how they crested Chandra (Moon) on there Shikhar (head). Consequently Chadrashekhar [1] is one the Shiva’s adjective. One name of Ganesha is Bhaal Chandra [2] (Moon on forehead) for the same. So Moon is integral part of Shiva Parivar. Monday being day of Shiva. Soma is Chandra thus Somwar in Sanskrit means day of moon.

So seeing Moon for worship is in fact symbolic of having a sight of Shiva Parivaar(family). Suhag Gauri is the Deity of Marital Bliss and Ganesha is source of all the Happiness is worshiped in this way.

Karva is used in tendering Jal Arghya (which is valuable and deserve to be offered. Water is one of the element of (panchtatva puja ) to offer as a token of respect make offering of water by pouring it on deity thus falls on earth).

Karva Chauth occurs every year on Kartik Krishnapaksha chaturthi as per hindu calendar.

(Krishnapaksha is the waning moon fortnight in other words fortnight after full moon)

Many legends Katha associated with the karva chauth.

Reference

[1] ChanraShekhar ChanraShekhar ChanraShekhar Pahi Maam ।

ChanraShekhar ChanraShekhar ChanraShekhar Raksha Maam ।।

[2] Navamam BhalChandram cha Dashmam tu Vinayakam ।

# RUDRA YOGA रूद्र योग 1

Rudra Yoga (रूद्र योग)

The Rudra Yoga is considered a powerful Raj Yoga (“royal yoga“, “royal union”, also known as Classical Yoga in Astrology). This Raj yoga gives spiritual distinction along with material growth.

Those who are born with this yoga are equivalent to Royals or pre-eminent individual who is greatest in importance or degree or significance or achievement

1. This yoga occurs with the association of Jupiter and mercury. Mercury should be in conjunction with Jupiter or in aspect by Jupiter. Mercury should be in 1st, 5th, 7th or 9th from Jupiter.

(1st is conjunction, 7th is opposite, 5th and 9th is trine)

This yoga is evident in Mahatma Gandhi’s horoscope were Mercury is in ascendant and Jupiter is in seventh house. So mercury is in aspect with Jupiter.

2.  The house in which owner of the ninth house (Dharma Sthan) is placed; the Navanshesh of that particular house should be either in fourth or fifth house to materialize this Yoga.

3. *If Jupiter is in 12th house. Saturn being owner of 3rd house and placed in 11th house or Sun is in 11th house and Jupiter is owner of the ascendant and placed in 12th house then this Yoga formulates.

*This yoga can occur only for Scorpio and Sagittarius ascendant as Saturn can be lord of 3rd house for only these two ascendant. Further condition is given in the yoga is possible for Sagittarius ascendant where Jupiter should be owner of the ascendant.

# Malavya Yoga मालव्य योग 2

Yoga in Jyotish

Panch Mahapurush Yoga

In Sanskrit Panch means Five, Maha means great and Purush means man (individual).

The Yoga is formed by five planets Mars, mercury, Jupiter, Venus or Saturn.

Any of these five planets in it’s own sign, Mool Trikona or exalted in a kendra (quadrant) which is 1, 4, 7 and 10th house.

Kendra is Vishnu sthan, Mahapurusha Yogas are formed only when the planets are in Kendras
i.e. 1/4/7/10 house, not in any other house. Kendras are Vishnu sthanas and Mahapurusha Yogas
forms the five great qualities of Vishnu. Thus Mhapurusha yogas are called Pancha mahapurusha YOGAS. Birth chart of Lord Rama Chandra and Krishana bhagwan had multiple of these Mahapurush Yoga.

Name of these Five Yoga as per association of different planets

Malavya Yoga            Venus

Mahapurusha Yoga, whatever that planetary energy represents will be accentuated in the individual’s life.

ruchakabhadrakahaMsakamAlavAH sashashakA iti pa~ncha cha kIrtitAH |

रूचकभद्रकहंसक मालवा: सशशका इति पंच कीर्तिता:।

स्वभवनोच्चागतेषु चतुष्टये क्षितिसुतादिषु तान् क्रमशौ वदेत || 1 ||*

# Malavya Yoga

### मालव्य योग

When Venus is Exalted or Moola Trikona or Own House and placed in quadrant 1/4/7/10 (Kendra).

Exalted in Pisces

Moola Trikona Libra upto 15°

Own House Taurus and Libra

Malavya Yoga cannot occur with reference to every sign of the zodiac in the same house.

Table is given below for every ascendant

Taurus Libra Pisces              1st House

Aries Scorpio Virgo              7th House

Gemini Leo Capricorn          10th house

Sagittarius Aquarius Cancer           4th house

Yogphal (effect)

The person will have a well-developed physique, will be strong-minded, wealthy and happy with children and wife, will command vehicles, endowed with clean sense-organs and renowned and learned. Consistent with the nature of Venus, Malavya Yoga will make one resolute, immensely rich and give him happiness from wife and children and fame and name. Venus is the indicator of conveyances, sensual pleasures, music, dancing, fine arts, luxury and material comforts. Naturally Malavya Yoga renders one inclined towards all the indications of Venus, with the result his spiritual advancement and outlook will be in inverse ratio to his material comforts and pleasures.

In other words, while both Hamsa and  Malavya are Raja Yogas, the former makes one more idealistic, spiritual, broad-minded and selfless, while the latter indicates love of pleasure, and a predominantly materialistic outlook of life.

Malavya” means relating to or belonging to the country Malava (Malva) of the  in central India, the  yoga is named after this. The natives with Malavya Yoga have the greatest capacity for enjoyment. The wise and diplomatic qualities of Venus are very accentuated in natives with this yoga. Their strength comes from recognizing the true value of anything they might desire or aspire towards, and therefore not involving themselves in any activity that costs them more then they can afford; whether the price is material, emotional or spiritual. These natives also have the greatest ability to harmoniously enjoy the good things in the world without lusting or craving after them. Of course, if Venus is afflicted this will not
hold true.

Malva was one among Sixteen Great States (Shodash Maha Janpad ) in 6th century B.C. this being center of politics. Malavya Yoga, a yoga that gives strength to Venus, planet of politics.

Greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language Kālidāsa(4th -5th Cen. A.D.) is then said to have become the most brilliant of the “nine gems” at the court of the king Vikramaditya of Ujjain. Capital of Malva.

Description: “The Malavya native is lustrous like Chandra, of slender
waist, medium stature, with beautiful lips the lower being not very
fleshy, and having an ordinary red complexion, with white, even, well-formed teeth, and a pleasant fragrance to the body. Handsome and
gracefully built one has the gestures, bodily structure and the
shinning eyes of a woman. The limbs are strong and the arms are long
enough to reach to the knees. One has a majestic voice akin to that
of a tusker, and is richly dressed and well ornamented. The face is
13 anguls in length and ten in breadth, and the temperament is kapha
and vata.”

Personality: “One is fond of music, silver, jewels, women, furniture,
clothes and garments; and enjoys all the pleasures of life to suit
their passion. Liberal, meritorious, resolute, powerful, wealthy, and
fortunate, one becomes famous and prospers. One is blessed with
children, spouse, and vehicles, and eats good meals. One possesses
unperturbed senses and becomes a monarch of cultured mind.”

Religion and Knowledge: “Learned, one knows the meaning of the sacred
scriptures, and is clever in the application of the three regal
powers: strength, capacity and counsel.”

Life and Death: “One lives happily for seventy (77) years as ruler of
Lata, Sindhu and Malva and then leaves for his heavenly abode after shuffling off his mortal coils in a sacred place through yoga or penance.”

(He rules over the western part (Lata, Sindhu and Malva) of the country and lives happily up to a ripe old age)

Malavya Yoga is specific to venus exalted or in own sign in Kendra. The most powerful Malavya Yoga will occur for Geminy ascendant  if Venus is exclusively in the 10th (most powerful Kendra) and exalted or in own house and is a highly functional benefic as per your ascendant. If the Venus turns out to be a functional malefic as for Aries ascendant then the good will be reduced.

Famaous people born with Malavya yoga

Malavya yoga in seventh house in Léonard de VINCI’s horoscope.

Mahatma Gandhi had Malavya yoga in his Lagna (1st house)

Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, Karl Marx Mercury-Venus conjunction with Malavya yoga in 4th house.

Albert Einstein – The Philosopher & Scientist of the Century took him to dizzy heights in life. Presence of many auspicious and powerful yogas made him a renowned person around the world. The presence of “Malavya yoga” (Pisces Venus is exalted causing Malavya and Mercury is creating Neechbhanga raja yoga.) in his birth chart.

Sonia Gandhi has Malavya Yog in 4th House

Sania Mirza, was born in Mumbai on November 15, 1986.Sun, retrograde Mercury and retrograde Venus are placed in the 10th house

ruchakabhadrakahaMsakamAlavAH sashashakA iti pa~ncha cha kIrtitAH |

dIrghAsyo bahusAhasAptavibhavaH shUro.arihantA balI

gArviShTo ruchake pratItaguNavAn sanApatirjitvaraH |

mAlavye sukhabhuksuvAhanayashA vidvAnprasannendriyaH || 3||

shastaH sarvajanaiH subhR^ityabalavAn grAmAdhipo vA nR^ipo

durvR^ittaH shashayogajo.anyavanitAvittaH saukhyavAn |

na hIti kathito.athavA himakarAdgrahaiH kendragaiH || 5||

bhavati hi sunaphAyAM dhIdhanakhyAtimAMshcha |

rviShayasukhasuveSho nirvR^itashchAnaphAyAm || 6||

styAgAnvito dhurudhurAprabhavaH sabhR^ityaH |

preShyAH khalAshcha nR^ipaterapi vaMshajAtAH || 7||

hitvenduM shubhashubhasivevAsyubhayacharyAkhyAH svariHphobhaya\-

sthAnasthaiH savituH shubhaiH syurashubhaiste papasaMGYAH smR^itAH |

satpArshve shubhakartarItyudayabhe pApestu pApAhvayo

lagnAdvittagataiH shubhaistu sushubho yogo na pApexitaiH || 8||

jAtaH syAt subhagaH sukhI guNanidhirdhIro nR^ipo dhArmiko

vikhyAtaH sakalapriyo.atishubhago dAtA mahIshapriyaH |

chArva~NgaH priyavAkprapa~ncharasiko vAgmI yashasvI dhanI

anyAyAjjananindako hataruchirhInapriyo durjano\-

jaivAtR^iko vibhayarogaripuH ukhI syA\-

dADhyaH shriyA cha shubhakartariyoga jAtaH |

syAtpApakartaribhavo.achiramAyureti || 11||

AchAravAn dharmamtiH prasannaH

saubhAgyavAn pArthivamAnanIyaH |

mR^idusvabhAvaH smitabhAShaNashcha

dhanI bhavechchAmalayogajAtaH || 12||

shubhaiH kramAtphalaM GYeyaM viparItaMasadgrahaiH || 13||

ojeShvarkendulagnAnyajani divi pumaMshchenmahAbhAgyayogaH

jIvantyAShTarisaMsthe shashini tu shakaTaH kendrage nAsti lagnA\-

mahAbhagye jAtaH sakalanayanAnandajanako

chiraM putraiH pautraiH shubhamupagatA sA sucharitA || 15||

kesarIva ripuvargatihantA prauDhavAk sadasi rAjasavR^ittaH |

dIrghajIvyatiyashAH paTibuddhistejasA jayati kesariyoge || 16||

kvachitkvachidbhAgyaparichyutaH sanpunaH punaH sarvamupaiti bhAgyam |

loke.aprasiddho.aparihAryamantaH shalyaM prapannaH shakaTe.atiHukhI || 17||

lagnaM pashyati kashchidatra balavAnyyogo bhavetpuShkalaH || 19||

shrImAn puShkalayogajo nR^ipavaraiH saMmAnito vishrutaH

svAkalpAmbarabhUShitaH shubhavachAH sarvottamaH syAtprabhuH || 20||

sarve pa~nchasu ShaTsu saptasu shubhA mAlAshcha pa~NktyA sthitA

laxmyAkhyo.atha tathAvidhe himakare gaurIti jivexite || 21||

kumArgayukto.ashubhamAlikAkhye duHkhI pareShAM vadhakR^it kR^itaghnaH |

syAtkAtaro bhUsurabhaktihono lokAbhishaptaH kalahapriyaH syAt || 23||

nityaM ma~NgalashIlyA vanitayA krIDatyarogI dhanI

lokAnandakaro mahIpativaro dAtA cha laxmIbhavaH || 24||

pa~NkhajavaktraH saMstutarjatro rAjati gaurIyogasamutthaH || 25||

shukravAkpatisudhAkarAtmajaiH kendrakoNasahitairdvitIyagaiH |

svochchamitrabhavaneShu vAkpatau vIryage sati sarasvatIritA || 26||

niShNAtaH kavitAprabandharachanAshAstrArthapAraMgataH |

kIrtyAkAntajagattrayo.atidhaniko dArAtmajairanvitaH

syAt sArasvatayogajo nR^ipavaraiH saMpUjito bhAgyavAn || 27||

svochchasvarxasuhR^idgR^ihAnupagatAH shrIkaNThayogo bhavet |

rudrAxAbharaNo vibhUtidhavalachChAyo mahAtmA shivaM

dhyAyatyAtmani santataM suniyamaH shaivavrate dIChitaH

tejasvI shivapUjayA pramuditaH shrIkaNThayogodbhavaH || 29||

laxmIvAn sarasoktichATunipuNo nArAyaNA~NkANkitaH

sarveShaM nayanapriyo.atisubhagaH shrInAthayogodbhavaH || 30||

hR^iShTo vaidikamArgato na chalati prakhyAtashiShyavrajaH |

rghayurkjitendriyo natanR^ipo vairi~nchiyogodbhavaH || 31||

bhAvAdhIshvaryoH krameNa kathitAH ShaTShaShTiyogA janaiH |

stvaShTau shauryapateH khalA nigaditAH sheShA mahAkhyAH smR^itAH || 32||

parthivAptabahumAnarasamAGYo yAnavittasutavAMshcha mahAkhye || 34||

vArddhiShNurAryaH sumatiH prasannaH xema~NkaraH kAhalajo nR^imAnyaH |

sthirAryasaukhyaH sthirakAryakarttA xitIshvaraH parvatayogajAtaH || 36||

syAkCha~Nkhayoge bahuvaravanitAbhogasampattipUrNaH || 38||

kedArAkhyaH shUlayogo yugaM cha golashchAnyAn pUrvamuktAnvihAya || 39||

vINAyoge nR^ittagItapriyo.arthI dAmni tyAgIbhUtishchopakArI |

pAshe bhogI sArthasachChIlabandhuH kedArAkhye shrIkR^iShixetreyuktaH || 40||

shUle hiMstraH krodhashIlo daridraH pAShaNDI syAd dravyahIno yugAkhye |

nisvaH pApI mlechChayuktaH kushilpI gole jAtashchAlaso.alpAyureva || 41||

netA mantrI bhUpatiH syAtkrameNa khyAtaH shrimAndIrghajIvI manasvI || 42||

amunA ripavaH parAjitAhchiramAyurlabhate prasiddhatAm || 43||

bhAgyakhyAtisupArijAtamusalAstajGYairyathA kIrtitAH || 44||

pratyahaM vrajati vR^idimudagraM shuklachandra iva shobhanashIlaH |

kIrtimAn janapatishchirajIvI shrInidhirbhavati chAmarajAtaH || 45||

sAnnapAnnavibhavo.akhilavidyA puShkalodhikakuTumbavibhUtiH |

shauryajo bhavati rAma ivAsau rAjakAryanirato.atiyashasvI || 47||

strIratnAmbarabhuShaNAni mahitasthAnaM cha sarvottamam |

susaMsArasaubhAgyasantAnalaxmI nivAso yashasvI shubhAShI manIShI |

amAtyo mahIshasya pUjyo dhanADhyaH sphurattIxNabuddhirbhavechChatrayoge || 49||

shatrUn baliShThAn balavannigR^ihya krUrapravttyA sahito.abhimAnI |

hantyanyakAryaM pishunaH svakAryaparo daridrashcha durAgrahI syAt |

svayamkR^itAnarthaparaMparArtaH kukarmakR^ichchAsurayogajAtaH || 52||

laxmI prApya mahAjanaiH kR^itanatiH syAddharmamarge sthitaH |

prINAtyeSha pitR^In surAndvijagaNAMstattatpriyaiH pUjanaiH

svAchAraH svakulodvahaH suhR^idayaH syAdbhAgyayogodbhavaH || 53||

satkriyAM sakalalokasaMmatAmAcharannavati sajjannAnnR^ipaH |

nityama~NgalayutaH pR^ithivIshaH saMchitArthanichayaH sukuTumbI |

satkathAshravaNabhaktrabhiGYo pArijAtajananaH shivatAtiH || 55||

svargameva labha.antetyadashAyAM jAlmako musalajashchapalashcha || 56||

duHsthairbhAvagR^iheshvarairashubhasaMyuktexitairvA kramA\-

dbhAvaiH syustvavayoganiHsvamR^itayaH proktAH kuhUH pAmaraH |

yogA dvAdasha te daridra vimale proktAvipashchijjanaiH || 57||

saMyutaH kucharitaH kutanuH syAchcha~nchalasthitirihApyavayoge || 58||

suvachanyashUnyo viphalakuTumbaH kujanasamAjaH kudashanachaxuH |

matisutavidyA vibhavavihino ripuhR^itavittaH prabhavati niHsve || 59||

ariparibhUtaH sahajavihIno manasivilajjo hatabalavittaH |

anuchitakarmashramaparikhinno vikR^itiguNaH syAditi mR^itiyoge || 60||

mAtR^ivAhanasuhR^itsukhabhUShabandhurbhivirahitaH sthitishUnyaH |

sthAnamAshritamanena hanaM syAt kustriyAmabhirataH kuhuyoge || 61||

duHkhajIvyanR^itavAgavivekI va~nchako mR^itasuto.apyanapatyaH |

nAstiko.alpakujanaM bhajate.asau ghasmaro bhavati pAmarayoge || 62||

siddhArambho jitaripuramalo vikhyAtAkhyaH prabhavati sarale || 65||

pratmAtijIrNambaradhR^ichcha durgato nirbhAgyayoge bahuduHkhabhAjanam || 66||

sharIraprayAsaiH kR^itaM karma yattat vrajenniShphalatvaM laghutvaM janeShu |

janadrohakArI svakurxibhariH syAt ajasraM pravAsI cha duryogajAtaH || 67||

R^iNagrasta ugro daridrAgragaNyo bhavetkarNarogI cha saubhAtrahInaH |

ki~nchidvyayo bhUridhanAbhivR^iddhiM prayAtyayaM sarvajanAnukUlyam |

sukhI svatantro mahanIyavR^itti gurNaiH pratIto vimalodbhavaH syAt || 69||

ChidrArivyayanAyakAH prabalagAHkendrantrikoNAshritAH

stadvyaste sati yogavAndhanapatirbhUpaH sukhI dhArmikaH || 70||

` `
` `
`atha paMchamahApurushhalaxaNAdhyAyaH || 75||`
` `
` `
`atha vaxyAmyahaM paJNchamahApurushhalaxaNam.h |`
`svabhochchagatakendrasthairbalibhishcha kujAdibhiH || 1||`
` `
`kramasho ruchako bhadro haMso mAlavya eva cha |`
`shashashchaite budhaiH sarvairmahAntaH purushhAH smR^itAH || 2||`
` `
`dIrghAnano mahotsAho svachchhakAntirmahAbalaH |`
`chArubhrUrnIlakeshashcha suruchishcha raNapriyaH || 3||`
` `
`raktashyAmo.arihantA cha mantravichchoranAyakaH |`
`krUrobhartA manushhyANAM xAmA.aN^ghrirdvijapUjakaH || 4||`
` `
`vINAvajradhanuHpAshavR^ishhachakrAN^kitaH kare |`
`mantrAbhichArakushalI dairdhye chaiva shatAMgulaH || 5||`
` `
`mukhadairghyasamaM madhyaM tasya viGYaiH prakIrtitam.h |`
`tulyastulAsahasreNa ruchako dvijapuN^gava || 6||`
` `
`bhunakti vindhyasahyAdripradeshaM saptatiM samAH |`
`shatreNa vahninA vApi sa prayAti surAlayam.h || 7||`
` `
`shArdUlapratibhah pInavaxA gajagatiH pumAn.h |`
`pInAjAnubhujaH prAGYashchaturasrashcha yogavit.h || 8||`
` `
`sAttvikaH shobhanAMghrashcha shobhanashmashrusaMyutaH |`
`kAmI shaN^khagadAchakrasharakuJNjarachihnakaiH || 9||`
` `
`dhvajalAN^galachihnaishcha chihnitAMghrikarAmbujaH |`
`sunAsashshAstravid.h dhIraH kR^ishhNAkuJNchitakeshabhR^it.h || 10||`
` `
`svatantraH sarvakAryeshhu svajanaprINanaxamaH |`
`aishvaryaM bhujyate chAsya nityaM mitrajanaiH paraiH || 11||`
` `
`tulayA tulito bhArapramitaH strIsutAnvitaH |`
`saxemo bhUpatiH pAti madhyadeshaM shataM samAH || 12||`
` `
`haMso haMsasvaro gauraH sumukhonnatanAsikaH |`
`shleshhmalo madhupiN^gAxo raktavarNanakhaH sudhIH || 13||`
` `
`pInagaNDasthalo vR^ittashirAH sucharaNo nR^ipaH |`
`matsyA.aN^.hkushadhanuHshaMkhakaJNjakhaT.hvAN^gachihnakaiH || 14||`
` `
`chihnatAMghrikaraH strIshhu kAmArto naiti tushhTatAm.h |`
`shhaNNvatyaMgulo dairghye jalakrIDArataH sukhI || 15||`
` `
`gaN^gAyamunayormadhyadeshaM pAti shataM samAH |`
`vanAnte nidhanaM yAti bhuktvA sarvasukhaM bhuvi || 16||`
` `
`samaushhThaH kR^ishamadhyashcha chandrakAntiruchiH pumAn.h |`

sugandho nAtiraktAN^go na hrasvo nAtidIrghakaH || 17||

`separate adhyAya 68 pa.nchamanushhyavibhAgAdhyAyaH`
` `
`\eatnum{68.1ab\/} tArAgrahaiH balayutaiH svakshetrasvauchchagaishchatushhTayagaiH .`
`\eatnum{68.1yd\/} pa.ncha purushhAH prashastA jAyante tAn.h ahaM vakshye .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.2ab\/} jIvena bhavati haMsaH saureNa shashaH kujena ruchakashcha .`
`\eatnum{68.2yd\/} bhadro budhena balinA mAlavyo daityapUjyena .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.3ab\/} sattvamahInaM sUryAtshArIraM mAnasaM cha chandrabalAt.h .`
`\eatnum{68.3yd\/} yad.h rAshibhedayuktAvetau tallakshaNaH sa pumAn.h .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.4ab\/} taddhAtumahAbhUtaprakR^itidyutivarNasattvarUpAdyaiH .`
`\eatnum{68.4yd\/} abalaravInduyutaiH taiH sa.nkIrNA lakshaNaiH purushhAH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.5ab\/} bhaumAt.h sattvaM gurutA budhAt.h surejyAt.h svaraH sitAt.h snehaH .`
`\eatnum{68.5yd\/} varNaH saurAdeshhAM guNadoshhaiH sAdhvasAdhutvam.h .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.6ab\/} sa.nkIrNAH syuH na nR^ipA dashAsu teshhAM bhavanti sukhabhAjaH .`
`\eatnum{68.6yd\/} ripugR^ihanIchauchchachyutasatpApanirIkshaNaiH bhedAH (bhedaH) .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.7ab\/} shhaNNavatiH a.ngulAnAM vyAyAmo dIrghatA cha haMsasya .`
`\eatnum{68.7yd\/} shasharuchakabhadramAlavyasaMGYitAH trya.ngulavivR^iddhyA .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.8a} yaH sAttvikaH tasya dayA sthiratvaM`
`\eatnum{68.8b} sattvArjavaM brAhmaNadevabhaktiH .`
`\eatnum{68.8y} rajo adhikaH kAvyakalAkratustrI\-`
`\eatnum{68.8d} saMsaktachittaH purushho.atishUraH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.9a} tamo.adhiko va.nchayitA pareshhAM`
`\eatnum{68.9b} mUrkho.alasaH krodhaparo.atinidraH .`
`\eatnum{68.9y} mishraiH guNaiH sattvarajastamobhiH`
`\eatnum{68.9d} mishrAH tu te sapta saha prabhedaiH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.10a} mAlavyo nAganAsaH samabhuja (nAganAsasamabhuja) yugalo jAnusaMprAptahasto`
`\eatnum{68.10b} mAMsaiH pUrNA.ngasandhiH samaruchiratanuH madhyabhAge kR^ishashcha .`
`\eatnum{68.10y} pa.nchAshhTau cha UrdhvamAsyaM shrutivivaramapi trya.ngulonaM cha tiryag.h`
`\eatnum{68.10d} dIptAkshaM satkapolaM samasitadashanaM nAtimAMsAdharoshhTham.h .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.11a} mAlavAn.h sa bharukachchhasurAshhTrAn`
`\eatnum{68.11b} lATasindhuvishhayaprabhR^itIMshcha .`
`\eatnum{68.11y} vikramArjitadhano.avati rAjA`
`\eatnum{68.11d} pAriyAtranilayAn.h (nilayaH) kR^itabuddhiH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.12ab\/} saptativarshho mAlavyo.ayaM tyakshyati samyak.h prANAM tIrthe .`
`\eatnum{68.12yd\/} lakshaNametat.h samyak.h proktaM sheshhanarANAM chAto vakshye .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.13a} upachitasamavR^ittalaMbabAhuH`
`\eatnum{68.13b} bhujayugalapramitaH samuchchhrayo.asya .`
`\eatnum{68.13y} mR^idutanughanaromanaddhagaNDo`
`\eatnum{68.13d} bhavati naraH khalu lakshaNena bhadraH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.14a} tvakshukrasAraH pR^ithupInavakshAH`
`\eatnum{68.14b} sattvAdhiko vyAghramukhaH sthirashcha .`
`\eatnum{68.14y} kshamAnvito dharmaparaH kR^itaGYo`
`\eatnum{68.14d} gajendragAmI bahushAstravettA .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.15a} prAGYo vapushhmAn.h sulalATasha.nkhaH`
`\eatnum{68.15b} kalAsvabhiGYo dhR^itimAn.h sukukshiH .`
`\eatnum{68.15y} sarojagarbhadyutipANipAdo`
`\eatnum{68.15d} yogI sunAsaH samasaMhatabhrUH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.16a} navAMbusiktAvanipatraku.nkuma\-`
`\eatnum{68.16b} dvipendradAnAgurutulyagandhatA .`
`\eatnum{68.16y} shiroruhAshchaekajakR^ishhNaku.nchitAH`
`\eatnum{68.16d} tura.nganAgopamaguhyagUDhatA (gUDhaguhyatA) .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.17a} halamushalagadAsisha.nkhachakra\-`
`\eatnum{68.17b} dvipamakarAbjarathA.nkitaa.nghri (anhri) hastaH .`
`\eatnum{68.17y} vibhavamapi jano.asya bobhujIti`
`\eatnum{68.17d} kshamati hi na svajanaM svatantrabuddhiH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.18a} a.ngulAni navatishcha shhaDUnAny-`
`\eatnum{68.18b} uchchhrayeNa tulayApi hi bhAraH .`
`\eatnum{68.18y} madhyadeshanR^ipatiH yadi pushhTAsh`
`\eatnum{68.18d} tryAdayo.asya sakalAvaninAthaH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.19ab\/} bhuktvA samyagvasudhAM shauryeNaupArjitAmashItyabdaH .`
`\eatnum{68.19yd\/} tIrthe prANAM tyaktvA bhadro devAlayaM yAti .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.20a} IshhaddanturakaH tanudvijanakhaH koshekshaNaH shIghrago`
`\eatnum{68.20b} vidyAdhAtuvaNikkriyAsu nirataH saMpUrNagaNDaH shaThaH .`
`\eatnum{68.20y} senAnIH priyamaithunaH parajanastrIsaktachittashchalaH`
`\eatnum{68.20d} shUro mAtR^ihito vanAchalanadIdurgeshhu saktaH shashaH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.21a} dIrgho a.ngulAnAM shatamashhTahInaM`
`\eatnum{68.21b} sAsha.nkacheshhTaH pararandhraviga .`
`\eatnum{68.21y} sAro.asya majjA nibhR^itaprachAraH`
`\eatnum{68.21d} shasho hyato (ayaM) nAtiguruH pradishhTaH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.22a} madhye kR^ishaH kheTakakha.ngavINA`
`\eatnum{68.22b} parya.nkamAlAmurajAnurUpAH .`
`\eatnum{68.22y} shUlopamAshcha UrdhvagatAshcha rekhAH`
`\eatnum{68.22d} shashasya pAdopagatAH kare vA .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.23a} prAtyantiko mANDaliko.athavA ayaM`
`\eatnum{68.23b} sphiksrAvashUlAbhibhavArtamUrtiH .`
`\eatnum{68.23y} evaM shashaH saptatihAyano.ayaM`
`\eatnum{68.23d} vaivasvatasyAlayamabhyupaiti .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.24a} raktaM pInakapolamunnatanasaM vaktraM suvarNopamaM`
`\eatnum{68.24b} vR^ittaM chAsya shiro.akshiNI madhunibhe sarve cha raktA nakhAH .`
`\eatnum{68.24y} sragdAmA.nkushasha.nkhamatsyayugalakratva.ngakuMbhAMbujaish`
`\eatnum{68.24d} chihnaiH haMsakalasvanaH sucharaNo haMsaH prasannendriyaH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.25ab\/} ratiH aMbhasi shukrasAratA dviguNA chAshhTashataiH palaiH mitiH .`
`\eatnum{68.25yd\/} parimANamathaasya shhaDyutA navatiH saMparikIrtitA budhaiH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.26ab\/} bhunakti haMsaH khasashUrasenAn.h gAndhAraga.ngAyAmunAntarAlam.h .`
`\eatnum{68.26yd\/} shataM dashonaM sharadAM nR^ipatvaM kR^itvA vanAnte samupaiti mR^ityum.h .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.27ab\/} subhrUkesho raktashyAmaH kaMbugrIvo vyAdIrghAsyaH .`
`\eatnum{68.27yd\/} shUraH krUraH shreshhTho mantrI chaurasvAmI vyAyAmI cha .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.28a} yanmAtramAsyaM ruchakasya dIrghaM`
`\eatnum{68.28b} madhyapradeshe chaturasratA (chaturashratA) sA .`
`\eatnum{68.28y} tanuchchhaviH shoNitamAMsasAro`
`\eatnum{68.28d} hantA dvishhAM sAhasasiddhakAryaH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.29a} khaTvA.ngavINAvR^ishhachApavajra\-`
`\eatnum{68.29b} shaktIndrashUlA.nkitapANipAdaH .`
`\eatnum{68.29y} bhakto gurubrAhmaNadevatAnAM`
`\eatnum{68.29d} shatA.ngulaH syAt.h tu sahasramAnaH (tulayA sahasraM) .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.30a} mantrAbhichArakushalaH kR^ishajAnuja.ngho`
`\eatnum{68.30b} vindhyaM sasahyagirimujjayinIM cha bhuktvA .`
`\eatnum{68.30y} saMprApya saptatisamA ruchako narendraH`
`\eatnum{68.30d} shastreNa mR^ityumupayAtyathavA.analena .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.31a} pa.nchApare vAmanako jaghanyaH`
`\eatnum{68.31b} kubjo.athavA maNDalako.atha sAchI (samI) .`
`\eatnum{68.31y} pUrvoktabhUpAnucharA bhavanti`
`\eatnum{68.31d} sa.nkIrNasaMGYaH (saMjJNAH) shR^iNu lakshaNaiH tAn.h .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.32a} saMpUrNA.ngo vAmano bhagnapR^ishhThaH`
`\eatnum{68.32b} ki.nchiga UrUmadhyakakshya (kaksha) antareshhu .`
`\eatnum{68.32y} khyAto rAGYAM hyeshha bhadrAnujIvI`
`\eatnum{68.32d} sphITo rAjA (dAtA) vAsudevasya bhaktaH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.33a} mAlavyasevI tu jaghanyanAmA`
`\eatnum{68.33b} khaNDendutulyashravaNaH susandhiH .`
`\eatnum{68.33y} shukreNa sArah pishunaH kavishcha`
`\eatnum{68.33d} rUkshachchhaviH sthUlakarA.ngulIkaH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.34a} krUro dhanI sthUlamatiH pratItaH`
`\eatnum{68.34b} tAmrachchhaviH syAt.h parihAsashIlaH`
`\eatnum{68.34y} uro a.nghri (anhri) hasteshhvasishaktipAsha\-`
`\eatnum{68.34d} parashvadhaa.nkaH sa (aGkashcha) jaghanyanAmA .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.35a} kubjo nAmnA yaH sa shuddho hyadhastAt.h`
`\eatnum{68.35b} kshINaH ki.nchit.h pUrvakAye natashcha .`
`\eatnum{68.35y} haMsAsevI nAstiko.arthairupeto`
`\eatnum{68.35d} vidvAn.h shUraH sUchakaH syAt.h kR^itaGYaH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.36a} kalAsvabhiGYaH kalahapriyashcha`
`\eatnum{68.36b} prabhUtabhR^ityaH pramadAjitashcha .`
`\eatnum{68.36y} saMpUjya lokaM prajahAtyakasmAt.h`
`\eatnum{68.36d} kubjo.ayamuktaH satatodyatashcha .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.37ab\/} maNDalakakshaNamato (kanAmadheyo lakshaNamato) ruchakAnucharo.abhichAravit.h kushalaH .`
`\eatnum{68.37yd\/} kR^ityAvetAla (vaitAla) Adishhu karmasu vidyAsu chaanurataH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.38ab\/} vR^iddhAkAraH kharaparushhamUrdhajashrUkshamUrdhajaH) cha shatrunAshane kushalaH .`
`\eatnum{68.38yd\/} dvijadevayaGYayogaprasaktadhIH strIjito matimAn.h .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.39a} sAchIiti (sAmIti) yaH so.ativirUpadehaH`
`\eatnum{68.39b} shashAnugAmI khalu durbhagashcha .`
`\eatnum{68.39y} dAtA mahAraMbhasamAptakAryo`
`\eatnum{68.39d} guNaiH shashasyaiva bhavet.h samAnaH .. \SCOUNT..`
`\eatnum{68.40a} purushhalakshaNamuktamidam.h mayA`
`\eatnum{68.40b} munimatAni nirIkshya samAsataH .`
`\eatnum{68.40y} idamadhItya naro nR^ipasammato`
`\eatnum{68.40d} bhavati sarvajanasya cha vallabhaH .. \SCOUNT..`
` `

# The Science behind Indian (Hindu) Calendars 12

The Science behind Indian (Hindu) Calendars

(R.K. Chopra, B.Tech. Mining Engg.)

With evolution of human specie there was a need to keep track of time and to forecast certain cyclic events upon which human survival depended. The change of seasons, onset of winter & melting of snow, onset of monsoon (rain) & occurrence of flood, migration of animals & fish, and cycle of crops, plants & trees, all were governed by a time cycle, which even the animals felt and were aware of; but humans in different parts of the world devised precise systems for calculating and predicting this time cycle which later evolved as different types of calendars.

Humans took help of celestial bodies, apparent motions of the sun & the moon to formulate different calendars. Counting of days based upon the phases of the moon began in Palaeolithic Era (Stone Age, 2.5 millions year ago to 10000 BC) and thus the concept of a lunar month developed. The concept of seasons also existed right from the beginning. However, with the development of civilisations and advent of script & counting system, man could know the number of days it took for recurrence of a season and that it happened due to motion of the sun (or the earth as we know now); and concept of the solar year developed. It did not take any more time to configure that roughly 12 lunar months make a solar year.

In colder countries where onset of winter & melting of snow was the single most important factor around which activity cycle of humans, animals and plants revolved, solar calendars developed. In deserts, where most of the travelling was done at night, lunar calendars came in use. People at sea shores also relied heavily on lunar cycle for fishing. In tropical countries such as India, where climate was warmer and people usually slept outside the house, gazing the moon and stars, lunisolar calendars developed. Subsequently, these were linked to stars or group of stars.

Before understanding the science behind a calendar one must understand the following astronomical facts:

• The Moon revolves around the earth in about 27.32 days (sidereal month), i.e. if the moon is seen after this interval, it would be near the same star.
• On every other night one would find the moon near some other group of stars. In Indian system each such star (or group) is called Nakshatra (wives of moon, in all there are 27). Nakshatra (lunar mansion) should be distinguished from Rashis (Zodiacs), which are also groups of stars but are twelve in number and basically represent twelve months of the year (solar). Naksatras may be a part of the 12 zodiacs, or may be a constellation by themselves.
• The average time interval between two full moons (synodic or lunar month) is about 29.53 days (29 days, 12 hours, and 44 minutes). It is longer than sidereal month because the earth moving at a speed of about 1 degree per day (360 degrees in a year) around the sun would have moved about 30 degrees ahead during this period and moon with its speed of about 12 degrees per day around the earth has to travel about 2½ days extra to come into the line of the sun and the earth (full moon). For the same reason one would find the full moon in a new zodiac (30 degrees ahead) after every month. However, this time between two full moon is also not constant and ranges from about 29.27 to 29.83 days.
• The earth takes 365.256 days (Sidereal year, 365d 6h 9min) to make one revolution around the sun. You would find same midnight sky (stars) after this interval.
• A tropical (climatic) year (365.242 days, 365d 5h 46m) is slightly shorter than the sidereal year and is equal to the time sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons (equinoxes/sankrantis, which are related inclination of sun rays falling on earth). This minute difference occurs because like a wobbling top, the orientation of the Earth’s axis is slowly but continuously changing in a cycle of approximately 25,765 years due to gravitational forces of the Sun and the Moon. That means that the position of the sun with respect to stars changes after every topical year. This is the basic cause of the anomalies between Gregorian calendar (based on tropical year) and some Hindu calendars (based on sidereal year) year, though both have a sound scientific base
• 30 lunar dates are equal to 29.53 solar dates. One solar year has 371 lunar dates or tithes. This means a solar year would have about 12 1/3 lunar months. If the 12 Synodic (lunar) months are used to count a year, it will be almost 11 days shorter (354.367 days) than the tropical year.
• An equinox happens each year twice when the centre of the sun can be observed to be vertically above the earth’s equator occurring around March 20 or 21 (Vernal/northward equinox) and September 22 or 23 (autumnal/southward equinox).
• Northern (summer) solstice and southern (winter solstice) also indicate the sun’s position. The northern solstice takes place on June 20 or 21 when the sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere, and the southern solstice on December 21 or 22, when the sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere.

As a solar year does not have exactly 12 lunar months; combining the two would requires some cumbersome calculations, and if a thumb rule is applied inaccuracy will crop in. On the other hand, with the sole use of a lunar calendar with 12 lunar months a year, dates or festivals will keep shifting into different seasons every year (advancing by about 11 days after each solar year).

The biggest advantage of lunar calendar is that it is simple and dates could be tracked even by an illiterate man in early days when no paper or printing existed. Solar calendars kept track of seasons. But remembering a date was the job of the learned men. The lunisolar calendar had the advantage of both worlds, but involved some mathematics (like the value of Pi or π, an accurate calculation need not be simple).

Earlier Roman calendar had only 10 months. September was the seventh month, October the eighth, November the ninth and December the tenth. A calendar year lasted only 304 days and winter months were simply ignored. After many reforms, came the Gregorian calendar which is the most widely used in the world today. It has an average year of 365.2425 days with an error of about one day per 3300 years with respect to the mean tropical year of 365.2422 days.

India has an ancient astronomical tradition, though it is difficult to trace its development due to the lack of systematic historical records. One has to interpret the astronomical references from the ancient literatures. Indian Astronomy existed even before 1400 BC, much earlier to the Babylonian astronomy (thrived in 5th century). Concepts of tithis (dates) and Nakshatras (star/ star-groups or asterisms) was the part of earlier Vedic Astronomy. The present Panchangs (calendars) were made later and refined by many astronomers like Arybhatta (5th Century).

Initially, the year used to have 360 days (12 months of 30 days each). Later on astronomer-priests started the practice of having an extra month (adhikamasa) of 30 days every 6th year (thus year averaged at 365 days).

When full moon month cycle was followed, the 12 lunar months made a year of about 355 days. So, after every two and half years a lunar month (of 29.53 days) was added. Thus an average year contained 366 days( i.e. one day extra). This anomaly was rectified by dropping a month after every 30th year (30 solar years @ 365.24219 days = 10957 days; 371 lunar months @ 29.53059 days = 10956 days). The concept of dropping a month was there around 3000 BC and was carried to later period. Even then a small error of 5 lunar dates (tithes) was estimated in 90 years. Therefore a special 5 year period was added with one extra date each year after 90 years.

Above is the basis of the 95-year Agnichayana vidhi as described in the 6th Kanda of Shatapatha Brahmana शतपथ ब्राह्मण (Yajurved यजुर्वेद, 1000-1400 BC). The 95-year cycle containing 5 Metonic cycles of 19 years was discovered by the Babylonians around 300 BC. Present Indian calendars do calculations by actual positions of the sun and the moon and drop-month may occur after interval of 19 to 141 years.
Presently, following main Calendars are in use in India:

Vikrama Samvat: This is also the official calendar of Nepal. It follows lunar months, and solar sidereal years. The calendar is popular in mainland India. It was started by the emperor Vikramaditya of Ujjain following his victory over the Sakas in 56 BCE. The calendar is 56.7 years (56 Years and 8 ½ Months) ahead of the Gregorian calendar.

The names of the 12 months are taken from the 12 Nakshatras around whom the moon is placed on full moon day. The month can be identified by observing the first Naksatra on the eastern horizon at sunset. To synchronize it with the solar calendar, about once every 2 ½ years an extra month is added within a year (that means one particular month is repeated twice within that year). This way the festivals are observed by lunar dates but are contained within the same season (± 15days).

Unlike in many calendar systems where thumb rules are followed (e.g. 7 extra months in a 19 year cycle or 7 embolismic months in a24-year cycle), the Indian system is based upon actual calculations of motions the sun and the moon. The12 reference points (stars) of the sun in Hindu system, now no longer coincides with the 1st day of each month of Gregorian calendar (the gap has widened over the years as they follow sidereal or tropical system). For a month to have been completed as per the Hindu calendar, sun must traverse certain reference points. The concept is very much similar to the blue moon when two full moon occurs with in a month (average Gregorian month is about 30 ½ days and the full moon occurs after every 29-30 days. If a full moon occurs on 1st or 2nd day of a month, another full moon may occur within the same month on 30th or 31st day). Similarly it may so happen that there may not be a full moon in February if full moon day happens to be, say 31st January and 1st March. Had it been such case in Hindu lunisolar calendar, we would have added an extra month in first case and dropped a month in 2nd case.

Tithis (Dates) are counted from 1 to 15 for each 15 days period. These periods are named as Krishna Paksh (Dark fortnight, waning moon, when moon rises after sunset) and Shukla Paksh (bright fortnight waxing moon when moon is visible at the sunset). Dates are calculated based upon each 12 degree of moon phase, and Full Moon and New Moon falls on 15th day of the fortnight (This slightly differs from Islamic dates when first day is when moon is visible by human eyes and full moon occurs on 14th day). However due to complex lunation of moon in actuals, a paksh may be of 13 or 14 or 16 days also.
Shaka Samvat: (traditional): It follows lunar months, solar sidereal years. It was started after the king Shalivahana’s (Saka dynasty) victory over the dynasty of king Vikramaditya. It is used with Hindu calendars, the Indian national calendar, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar. The new year begins near the vernal equinox.

 Solar Months of the Indian Religious Calendar Sun’s Longitude Approx. Duration Approx. Greg.Date deg min days 1 Vaisakha 23 15 30.9 Apr.  13 2 Jyestha 53 15 31.3 May  14 3 Asadha 83 15 31.5 June  14 4 Sravana 113 15 31.4 July  16 5 Bhadrapada 143 15 31.0 Aug. 16 6 Asvina 173 15 30.5 Sept. 16 7 Kartika 203 15 30.0 Oct. 17 8 Margasirsa 233 15 29.6 Nov. 16 9 Pausa 263 15 29.4 Dec. 15 10 Magha 293 15 29.5 Jan. 14 11 Phalgura 323 15 29.9 Feb. 12 12 Caitra 353 15 30.3 Mar. 14

Lunations are divided into 30 tithis, or lunar days. Each tithi is defined by the time required for the longitude of the Moon to increase by 12 degrees over the longitude of the Sun. Thus the length of a tithi may vary from about 20 hours to nearly 27 hours.

Shaka Samvat: (modern) solar tropical: It is the official civil calendar in use in India, used alongside the Gregorian calendar by the Government of India. The year starts on 22nd March (21st March in leap years). The calendar is 58/59 years behind Gregorian calendar.

* In a leap year, Caitra has 31 days and Caitra 1 coincides with March 21

Regional Calendars: In many regions of India regional solar calendars are followed. The New Year starts in mid April, when, according to traditional calculations, the sun returns from southern hemisphere to northern hemisphere (Vernal equinox) and Bihu (Assam), Baisakhi (Punjab) Vishu (Kerala) and Pôhela Boishakh (Bengal) are celebrated.

Earlier practice of starting the year from winter solstice (Uttarayana day) continued throughout the Vedic period but was later changed to vernal equinox.

As Indian system followes sidereal years (based on stars/zodiacs), which is slightly larger than the tropical years (based on equinoxes or solstice) the annul date of festival of winter solstice (Makara sankranti/ Pongal) has shifted by 24 days (from 21st December to 14th January). But after deliberations by learned men, it was decided that these festivals shall continue to be celebrated on traditional days i.e. by position of sun with respect to a star rather than solstice). This difference has grown to 24 days in last about 1700 years as the full cycle is of 25765 years.

Some calendars and their year with respect to Gregorian calendar year 2008 is listed below:

1.    Sri Krishna Samvat – 5234
2.    Yudhisthira Samvat – 5151
3.    Gat Kali, – 5109 (Kalyabd 5110)
4.    Saptarsi – 5083
5.    Baudh Samvat – 2583
6.    Jaina Samvat (Mahavira Nirvana) – 2535
7.    Sri Shankaracharya Samvat – 2288
8.    Vikrama Samvat – 2065
9.    Shaka Samvat/Shalivahana Samvat – 1930
10.   Bangla Samvat – 1415
11.   Kalachuri Samvat – 1760
12.   Balabhi Samvat – 1688
13.   Fali Samvat – 1419
14.   Harshand Samvat – 1401

Indian panchangs (Calendars) follow a system dividing the time cycle in multiple of 6 or 60.for example a year was divided into 12 months and 6 seasons. Each month had 30 days. Further:

1 day       =     24 Hora (hours) =     60 Ghadi (24 minutes each)

1 Pal        =     60Vipal

1 Vipal     =     30Ksan         =    60Luv

The bigger times were named as follows;

1000 years           =    1 Sahasrabda

432 Sahasrabda    =    1 Yug

10000 Yug          =    1 Kalp (4.32 billion years)

Hindus follow traditional religious Lunar Calendar to celebrate their festivals. But some festivals are followed also based on position of the sun in the Zodiac. Various states of India celebrate the New Year in their own ways. And not all of these falls on the same day, e.g.:

 Northen India (Vikram) Lunisolar (Chaitra Shukla 1) March-April Nepali (Nava Varsha) (Baisakh 1) April 13 or14 Punjabi / Sikh (Nanakshahi) Baisakhi, April 13 or 14 Kerala (Vishu) April 13 or 14 Tamil Nadu (Puthandu Vazthukal) April 13 or 14 Bengali (Nôbobôrsho) Pohela Boishakh, April 14 or 15 Assami (Bohaag Bihu) Chait Sankranthi, April 14 or 15 Sindhis (Cheti-Chand) New Moon of Cheti (Chaitra) (March-April) (also the birthday of Jhulelal, the Patron Saint of Sindhis) Marathi (Gudi Padva) Andhra Pradesh, Telgu (Ugadi)* First day of Chaitra, lunisolar (March-April) Karnataka, Kannada (Ugadi)* First day of Chaitra, lunisolar (March-April) Kashmiri (Navreh) First day of Chaitra, lunisolar (March-April) Marwari, Gujarati, (Bestu Varas) Diwali, Karthik Shukla Pratipada (October- November) Muslim Muharram 1 (advance about 11 days every year) Parsi (Zoroastrian), Iranian, Bahai Nowruz 20-21 March Sikkim (Tibet Losar) Tibetan lunisolar (January February) Sikkim (Tamang)(Sonam Lhochar) 18th day of the 10th month (Magh) of the Tibetan lunisolar calendar    (December-January) Sikkim (Gurang) (Tamu Losar) 15th day of Pusa, 30th December Sikkim harvest (Losoong) End of 10th Month, 28-31 December

Old Roman calendar observed New Year’s Day on March 15. The January 1 was fixed as  New Year’s Day in 153 BC.

(Note: The concept of the above article was suggested by author’s father Shri D.K. Chopra, who is a scholar of Hindu Philosophy, Mythology and astrology. However, readers may have discretion regarding sources and accuracy of data. Suggestions for improvements are welcomed).

Hindu Calendar : After reading this article some requests came to make it simpler. So I have tried to explain some of the points through an analogy.

You must have heard the phrase “Once in a Blue Moon” – meaning not very often.  Actually a blue moon is nothing but a full moon (पूर्णिमा) occurring 2nd time within an English calendar month.

As the interval between 2 full moons is 29 1/2 days, if a full moon occurs on 1st or 2nd day of the month, another full moon (called blue moon) will occur around 30th or 31st. There cannot be more than 13 full moons (or less than 12) in a year. Though it may so happen that a blue moon may occur in January and also in March, but in that case February (28 days) will not have any full moon (year 2018). It is extremely rare, once in 1000 years, that a 29 days February will not have any full moon (year 1608, 2572)

The flip side of a Blue moon is a Black Moon when in a single calendar month the 2nd new moon (Amavasya) occurs.

Our Hindu calendars are mostly based on lunar phases starting from next day of a full Moon (zero) ‘Pratipada the day one’ and ending with the Full moon. Some calendar observes new moon to new moon cycle also. There are other Hindu calendars with are based on solar phases (e.g. Bangla (Bengali) and Punjabi calendars based on solar movements) which I am not discussing here.

Since in our Hindu calendar system a month is completed after on New moon and a year should have only 12 months, there is a mechanism of addressing this extra New moon month whenever it occurs.

Roughly in 3 years time we have 37 New moons (or months, to be more precise such month occurs after 28 to 36 months, i.e. once in 32 months on average) where as we should have only 36 months in 3 years going by the fact that an year can have only 12 months. So we have an in built mechanism to bring it down to 36 named months of years by not giving the additional month any new name calling it an अधिक मास Adhik Maas (Surplus Month or पुरुषोत्तम मास Purushottam Maas, as the saying goes given when the Adhik month approached Lord Visnu crying discrimination).

Usually it is solved in two parts of 15 days each (paksh), with 30 days pure month remaining in middle and each half of Adhik maas on either side. By doing so our festivals are not much off to its solar dates (unlike in Islamic calendar where within 12 years Eid falling in summer falls in winter.

Opposit of Adhik maas is क्षय मास Kshay maas (lost or deficit month), which occurs very rarely (year 1983). For an analogy, I gave you an example of a February without a full moon. In Kshay maas, the two month names are combined and festivals of both the months covered in that.

Going by the simple arithmetic, the lost month should not happen. But due to eccentric elliptical orbit (path), the earth covers a distance of 30 degrees (of a month, dividing total path of 360 degrees into 12 parts) faster with respect to Sun during winter months (29 to 30 days) than in other months (30 to 32) days). So, although Kshay Mass is rare but does occur.

If two new moons occur between two successive Sankranti dates, an Adhik Maas or Surplus Month will be generated. On the contrary if no new moon occurs in such period, a month will be lost. The lost month is combined with another month, but certainly in that year at some point of time an Adhik Maas will also be generated. It may be sacrilegious to ask for adjusting a Kshay Mass with the Aadhik Maas happening within the same year, which is based on the precise astronomical calculations, but I do have a right to keep a different opinion.

(Starting 2017 Sankranti dates are, when the sun changes a zodiac, are March-14  April, Vrishabh- 14 May, Mithuna- 14 June, Kark- 16 July, Simh- 16 August, Kanya- 16 September, Tula- 17 October, Vrischik-16 November, Dhanu- 15 December, Makar 15 January, Kumbh- 13 February, Meen- 14 March

By this way Hindu system bridges both solar and lunar calendars.

Early Roman calendars were also based on lunar cycle and month used to start after sighting of moon just as practiced in Islamic calendar now. A year had 355 days similar to our calendars and to make the calendar correspond approximately to the solar year, the Roman ruler Numa Pompilius ordered the addition of a month called Mercedinus after every 2 years.

Earth is closest to the sun (147 million km) around 3rd January and farthest (152 million km) around 3rd July. Earth speed is fastest when it is closest to sun, Just imagine a tennis ball you toss up has the highest speed when it touches the ground and slows it down when it goes up. Then why do we have winter when we are closure to sun. Because intensity of heat variance due to distance change is only about 3%. The major change is primarily based on the tilt of the earth at any point of time towards the sun as a result, in northern hemisphere we get maximum heat at around 21st June and least around 21st December.

In the astrology the planetary position in solar system with respect to earth is considered. But the time can not be repeated if you look further beyond. For example, our Solar system has a speed of 230 km/ second making one orbit of our Galaxy, the Milky Way in 225 to 250 million years = 1 cosmic year. For comparison, the earth is moving a speed of only 29.79 km/sec making one round of sun in a year. (This is different from the speed one is getting about 0.46 km/sec at the equator due to earth rotation or spin.